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Fatal Flood

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Primary Sources: Colored Advisory Commission Report

Barely a month after the nation's biggest flood disaster, a 17-member commission of prominent African Americans, led by Tuskegee Institute's Robert Moton, submitted their report. They had been charged with learning whether African American victims of the flood were subject to discrimination "in matters of treatment, living conditions, work details, and relief given."

The Final Report of the Colored Advisory Commission Appointed to Cooperate with The American National Red Cross and the President's Committee on Relief Work in the Mississippi Valley Flood Disaster of 1927

Introductory Letter

The American National Red Cross
National Headquarters
Washington, D. C.
May 21, 1929

My dear Dr. Moton :
The final report of the Red Cross Colored Advisory Commission on their work during the Mississippi Flood Relief Operation of 1927 and 1928 sets forth with clarity and discernment the nature of the service rendered and your Commission is to be congratulated on this excellent presentation of the essential facts.

We will be glad to publish this report for general circulation as it contains material of the greatest interest to all those who have the welfare of the Colored Race at heart.

In behalf of The American National Red Cross, I wish to express our sincere appreciation of the whole-hearted and devoted service rendered by the members of your Commission. Their efforts contributed largely to the promptness and effectiveness of our relief operations throughout the area and constitute an important step in the development of inter-racial cooperation in the United States.


Dr. Robert R. Moton, Chairman
Red Cross Colored Advisory Commission
Tuskegee Institute
Tuskegee, Alabama

The Mississippi Valley Flood in Figures
Square miles inundated - 25,891
Square miles of cultivated land inundated - 8,265
States affected - 7
Counties affected - 170
Maximum length of flood (miles) - 1, 000
Maximum width of flood (miles) - 80
Breaks in protection levees - 145
Persons drowned - 246
Emergency boats used by Red Cross in rescue work - 5,934
Persons fed by Red Cross during emergency - 637,476
Colored people fed by Red Cross during emergency - 403,280
Refugee Camps operated by Red Cross - 154
Persons inoculated against typhoid fever - 457,719
Persons inoculated against smallpox - 146,745
Grains of quinine distributed to combat malaria - 25,000,000
Total Red Cross Relief Fund - $17,498,902.16
Acres planted with Red Cross assistance in 1927 and 1928 - 2,199,551

Officers and Members of the Colored Advisory Commission
Dr. Robert R. Moton, Chairman
Dr. Moton is Principal of the Tuskegee Institute.

Bishop R. E. Jones, Vice Chairman
Bishop Jones is in charge of the Southwestern District of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Albon L. Holsey
Mr. Holsey is Secretary to Dr. Moton and Secretary of the National Negro Business League.

Dr. J. S. Clark, Treasurer
Dr. Clark is President of Southern University.

Eugene K. Jones
Dr. Jones is Executive Secretary, the National Urban League.

Jesse O. Thomas
Mr. Thomas is Southern Field Secretary, the National Urban League.

Mrs. John Hope
Mrs. Hope is Director of the Atlanta Neighborhood Union.

Miss Eva D. Bowles
Miss Bowles is Executive Secretary, National Y. W. C. A.

Claude A. Barnett
Mr. Barnett is Director, Associated Negro Press.

Dr. Roscoe C. Brown
Dr. Brown, a former field worker for the U. S. Public Health Service, is Assistant Secretary, National Medical Association.

Miss Mary E. Williams
Miss Williams is a Public Health Nurse under Tuskegee Chapter (the only Negro Chapter), American Red Cross.

Robert R. Taylor
Mr. Taylor is the Vice-Principal and Director of Mechanical Industries at Tuskegee Institute.

Dr. L. M. McCoy
Dr. McCoy is President of Rust College, Holly Springs, Mississippi

Dr. J. B. Martin
Dr. Martin is a Regional Director, National Negro Business League.

B.M. Roody
Mr. Roody is Vice President, National Negro Business League.

Dr. S. D. Redmond
Dr. Redmond is a large land owner in Mississippi and a leader in civic and business affairs of his state.

T. M. Campbell
Mr. Campbell is Field Representative, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 will go down in history as one of America's greatest peace time disasters.

In population affected, in territory inundated, in property loss and crop destruction, its totals in figures are staggering. That great and terrible loss of life was averted is attributable to just one thing; the work done by the gigantic and remarkable rescue and relief organization which was thrown into the breach by The American National Red Cross and led by Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, Chairman of the President's Flood Committee, and Mr. James L. Fieser, Vice Chairman in Charge of Domestic Operations of The American National Red Cross. (Note: Mr. Fieser was Acting Chairman of the American National Red Cross during the first few weeks of the flood, in the absence of Judge John Barton Payne, Chairman of the American National Red Cross, who was abroad at this time.)

Negroes, because they comprise 75% of the population in the delta lowlands and furnish 95% of the labor power on the plantations and farms, where they operate as tenants, share croppers and small owners, constituted the human factor most affected. It is estimated that out of the 637,000 people forced to flee their homes by the water, 94% lived in three states, Arkansas, Mississippi and Louisiana; and that 69% of the 325,146 who occupied the concentration camps, depending on the Red Cross for food and shelter, were colored.

So large an operation, affecting so many people and covering so great a territory of the South, naturally developed many grave problems. Differences in race, forgotten momentarily in the life and death struggle of the rescue stage, arose quickly to the surface when the camps were established and routine conditions prevailed. The American National Red Cross made no differentiation in its policies between individuals or racial groups. The organization, however, is largely built upon Chapter units operating on a countywide basis which, in the final analysis, have immediate control of local administration. Rumors arose of discrimination against Negroes in matters of treatment, living conditions, work details and relief given. Secretary Hoover and Mr. Fieser, with the same prompt and vigorous action that had characterized their attack upon the earlier rescue phases of the flood, announced the policy of a square deal for all, and appointed a commission of colored citizens, headed by Dr. Robert R. Moton, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, which was authorized to investigate all complaints arising from colored refugees and to make suggestions for improvement in methods and administration. The Commission, meeting at Memphis, Tennessee, June 2, 1927, sprang immediately into action, investigating conditions in the various camps. Summarizing its findings, the body reported to Secretary Hoover and Mr. Fieser at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in the heart of the flood district.

The recommendations made and changes requested were immediately put into effect. Three members of the Commission were selected by Dr. Moton, Chairman, to work with the Red Cross Director in charge of activities in the various states. During the period of the flood and the reconstruction activities which followed, the Colored Advisory Commission met on various occasions with Mr. Hoover and other Red Cross officials in Washington. In November, 1927, the Commission made another general tour throughout the flood territory to inspect the progress of the work of rehabilitation. Meeting in Washington at National Red Cross Headquarters, December 12th, it again made suggestions, pointing out every disadvantage and inequality uncovered and giving credit to the many districts where creditable conditions prevailed.

The American National Red Cross was determined that a policy of exact justice should be carried out and complied with the recommendation of the Commission that one colored worker should be appointed for every white representative of the National organization, to serve as a liaison officer between the colored population and the local Red Cross officials and to investigate every complaint or needy case.

The splendid achievement of the Red Cross in administering relief to stricken flood section, the widespread sympathy and generous help of the nation, the cooperation of Secretary Hoover, representing all branches of the Government, made possible the effective work which the Commission was able to accomplish for the benefit of colored refugees. The records show that the results obtained in helping colored residents of the Mississippi Valley in securing adequate distribution of relief and needed measures of reconstruction have given the stricken sufferers a new hope and a new vision for the future.

The Report of the Colored Advisory Commission
The Report Covers the Activities from June 2, 1927, to April 26, 1928

A Summary of Events Preceding the Appointment of the Commission
The Mississippi Valley Flood of 1927, in the larger aspects of its disastrous career, began early in April of that year. Frequent rains during the previous fall and early spring had swollen to overflowing the 54 tributaries, which pour into the Mississippi River from 31 states and two Canadian provinces. The mass of water rolling slowly southward finally broke the high levees, built to hold the Mississippi in place, flooding 25,891 square miles, 8,265 of which were under cultivation. One hundred seventy counties in seven states -- Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri and Tennessee -- were affected. By April 15th the American Red Cross, which had responded to appeals for help, had 25,000 persons under its care. This number increased as the crest of the flood, flowing southward, inundated new territory, until during the height of the disaster 382,596 flood sufferers were being fed and provided for by the Red Cross.

Rescuing the Sufferers
From Cairo, Illinois on the north, the Arkansas border on the west, and on down to New Orleans, Louisiana, the angry water, stirred up to a foul, muddy yellow torrent, swept over the lowlands with devastating swiftness. The levees were broken in 145 places. Farms were flooded, houses washed away, mules, horses, cows, pigs and chickens perished by the thousand. Families, settlements and the populations of entire towns fled to higher land. Many could not reach the safety of the levees or hills and were rescued from tree tops and similar places by the army of workers mobilized under the direction of the Red Cross.

On April 22nd the president appointed a special Cabinet Committee to cooperate with the Red Cross consisting of Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, Chairman; Dwight F. Davis, Secretary of War; Curtis D. Wilbur, Secretary of the Navy; Andrew W. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury; and William M. Jardine, Secretary of Agriculture. Thereafter operations were in direct charge of Secretary Hoover and Vice Chairman James L. Fieser of the Red Cross, who stayed in the district almost continuously until the crisis had passed. The Red Cross established Relief Headquarters in Memphis and then moved to New Orleans as the crest of the flood progressed down the river. Over 637,000 persons were assisted by the Red Cross during the emergency period, of whom 325,000 were cared for temporarily in Red Cross refugee camps, and 312,00 were aided in their own homes.

Rescue Work and Refugee Camps
Thousands of boats were pressed into service. Big river steamers were commandeered. Almost over night a thousand motor and patrol boats were mobilized from various sections of the country. They supplemented the hundreds of skiffs, launches, rowboats and other craft that did rescue work. Fleets of airplanes were used to discover marooned refugees. When it was all over, the prompt and heroic action had resulted in only 246 persons being reported drowned. The rescue fleet, under the direction of Engineer Officers of the United States Army who were assigned to the Red Cross staff, was a marvel of efficiency and organization. One hundred fifty-four refugee camps were established. The rescued settled down to await the departure of the water with the forlorn hope that some of their possessions might have been saved and that an opportunity still would be afforded to make a crop.

Inter-racial Problems Call for Cooperation
The flood brought problems to the fore, social, health and economic. The tremendous pressure of the rescue stages gave little time or opportunity for racial differentiation or antagonisms. The Red Cross policy knew neither creed nor color line. In some places, however, the difficulties involved in handling a mass situation of the size and scope of the flood relief operations brought complaints of mistreatment from colored refugees who made up so large a part of the human problem involved. Viewing the situation with impartial and scientific analysis, the necessity for intelligent inter-racial cooperation became at once apparent to Secretary Hoover and Vice Chairman Fieser, who thereupon, appointed a Colored Advisory Commission headed by Dr. Robert R. Moton, Principal of Tuskegee Institute.

In his telegram to Dr. Moton, dated May 24, 1927, Mr. Hoover said:

"With a view to making certain the proper treatment of the colored people in the concentration camps of the flood district and with a view to inquire into any complaints, I would like you to advise me as to the appointment of a commission of representative colored citizens who can visit these camps and who can make investigation of any complaint or criticisms. Mr. Fieser who is the acting head of the Red Cross joins me in this request."

Investigation of the Refugee Camps
The Commission had its first meeting at Memphis, June 2, 1927. Robert E. Bondy, Manager of the Eastern Area of the Red Cross, welcomed the Commission and gave a minute description of the methods of Red Cross operation, together with a detailed outline of its operations up to that time. The Commission prepared to visit 30 of the larger camps, which included all that were still in operation and those particular centers where complaints had arisen. Dividing into groups of twos and threes they went into every section of the flooded district, armed with the authority of The American National Red Cross which gave them access to every camp.

Instructions given the investigating groups by Dr. Moton, Chairman of the Commission, were:

1. Treatment accorded refugees, especially women and children. 2. Condition of sleeping quarters. 3. Methods of feeding the refugees. 4. Sanitation - Isolation of disease. 5. Plans for the future.

Rehabilitation 1. Get in touch with civil and financial organizations handling the location of families. 2. Ascertain to what extent colored farmers who are not supported by landlords may secure advance funds. 3. As far as possible, try to determine whether or not white land owners are charging colored farmers for supplies that the Red Cross intends to be free, or detaining labor against its will. 4. Report on housing. 5. Report on health. 6. Report on education.

The sub-committees which covered the territorial assignments were:

Arkansas -- B. M. Roddy, Dr. L. M. McCoy Mississippi -- T. M. Campbell, Mrs. John Hope, Dr. J. B. Martin, Miss Mary E. Williams Northern Louisiana -- Jesse O. Thomas, Claude A. Barnett Central Louisiana -- J. S. Clark, Dr. Roscoe Brown Lower Louisiana -- R. R. Taylor, A. L. Holsey

Types of Camps
In their first report made to Secretary Hoover, Vice Chairman Fieser and other Red Cross officials in the Louisiana State Capitol Building at Baton Rouge, June 10th, the Commission said:

"While a comprehensive report covering every detail of the administration of the camps has been prepared and will be delivered to you, we are presenting at this time a brief cross section of the committee's findings, including descriptions of typical camps."


"The camps in which we found the most satisfactory conditions were those where the local colored people have had an opportunity to assist in the administration of affairs. The camps which were found to be especially good were: Baton Rouge, Lafayette, and Natchez. "It so happens that in the camps where colored people had no part in the administration, there was at first some disorganization, confusion and restlessness. In the camps at Greenville, Sicily Island and Opelousas, the colored people had practically no part in the activities of the colored refugees."


"At Baton Rouge, along with the white personnel worked colored assistants, directors, nurses and doctors, aiding in setting up camp, perfecting sanitation, feeding, clothing, and rendering the many small services which constantly presented themselves. The commissioned officers of the National Guard have been as courteous and sympathetic as essential discipline would permit. The American Red Cross nurses entered upon their duties of vaccination and care of minor illnesses and injuries with thorough interest in their work and cheerfulness in its fulfillment. "At Natchez where there were 3,647 in camp, they were all well cared for. We went into the mess tent and found plenty of wholesome food. There was some complaint that the white people in their camp were served a better grade of food than colored, but we were fortunate in being there at 'mess time' and observed that the same kind of food was being served both white and colored. WE attribute the favorable conditions found here to the fact that the local authorities provided a complete colored organization with power to act in all emergencies."

Greenville, Mississippi, was a camp where complaints were received from some of the colored refugees. Another excerpt from the Commission's report says:

"Greenville, which we had to reach in a small launch, had 3,000 refugees in camp but was serving as a base for feeding 40,000 more people scattered along the levees on either side of the city or who were occupying homes in that part of the town yet habitable. To go in and out of camp passes were required. Negro inmates complained that whites came and went at will without passes, while colored people were not given similar privileges. There were also complaints relative to rough treatment of colored people and discrimination in regard to labor conditions and distribution of food."

It is not possible in this report to cite individual cases, favorable or other wise, with specific names and incidents, as this would tend to reduce the report to a mass of detail. It is deemed more desirable and essential to give the major results of surveys and investigations in terms of additional personnel and facilities secured to effect an adequate remedy in all cases of violation of rules or denial of equitable consideration in the distribution of relief.

The specific cases referred to are to be found in the detailed records which constitute the unabridged data accompanying this report. The purpose of in including these cases in detail in the full report is to make specific the circumstances and conditions attending each case, and to avoid too much generalization, which by some might be considered too indefinite and incomplete and by others a disposition to conceal or minimize unfavorable findings. The American National Red Cross gave its Colored Advisory Commission ample opportunity to render a practical service despite some unfortunate conditions obtaining in an acute crisis. Extremities of human relations were bound to show exaggeration of already unsettled states of mind and sordid conditions due not alone to the current flood crisis, but to economic personal and group experiences which had long preceded the problems here related.

The Commission's Recommendations
The Commission's recommendations at the Baton Rouge meeting were as follows: "Your Commission respectfully submits the following recommendations for improving the conditions of Negro refugees both in camps and during the reconstruction period:

1. That Negro refugee camps be relieved of armed white guardsmen except those who are stationed at the entrance of the camps. 2. That local Colored Advisory Committees be associated with local Red Cross chapters and other officials during the second and third stages of relief.

3. That the Red Cross borrow at once trained Negro social workers and health nurses to go into the camps for the purpose of organizing mothers' meetings, men's meetings, and conducting clinics - health, dental, and baby. With many hundreds of these farm workers gathered together as they are in the camps there is an unusual opportunity to bring them a message of health and better home life.

4. That at least two colored men in the state of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana, with sufficient authority from the Flood Relief Committee to do their work unhampered, be delegated to visit the camps for the purpose of giving detailed information and answering questions concerning the reconstruction work.

5. That steps be taken at once to improve the system of the distribution of clothing to Negro refugees. In some camps it was reported that white refugees have the opportunity to select from the clothing sent for the Red Cross, first, and that what is left is turned over to the Negroes.

6. That the 1,800 Negro refugees in camp at Opelousas, Louisiana be divided and transferred to Crowley and Lafayette. Both of these camps have a large number of unoccupied tents. We make this recommendation because the Negro camp at Opelousas is located in a low place, and when it rains the water comes up into some of the tents.

7. (a) That knives, forks, and spoons be supplied for use in the cafeteria service at Opelousas, Monroe, and Delhi.
(b) That cafeteria service be installed at Sicily Island.
(c) That a screened structure with tables and seats be erected for the serving of food at Greenville, Vicksburg and Natchez."

Orders complying with these recommendations were issued by Secretary Hoover and Vice Chairman Fieser by telegraph from the meeting at Baton Rouge while it was still in session. The camp at Opelousas was discontinued entirely and the population transferred to other centers. Natural conditions helped to relieve the situation at Greenville. The receding waters permitted within a few days after this meeting the return to their homes of the refugees there and the abandonment of the camp.

Before the meeting in Baton Rouge was adjourned, Secretary Hoover requested Dr. Moton to select a smaller group from the Commission to continue as a cooperating agency with the Red Cross during the reconstruction period.

The Reconstruction Period
Colored State Reconstruction Assistants Appointed

The continuation committee of the Colored Advisory Commission was called to Washington on July 11, 1927, by Secretary Hoover to confer with Mr. Fieser and himself and other Red Cross officials on matters relative to the rehabilitation program as it affected the colored refugees.

In this conference it was decided to appoint colored assistants to the State Reconstruction officers in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Dr. Moton recommended Dr. J. S. Clark for Louisiana, Dr. L. M. McCoy for Mississippi, and H. C. Ray, State Agent for Agricultural Extension Work among Negroes, for Arkansas. On the same date telegrams, announcing the appointment of these men, were sent to the State Reconstruction officers by Mr. Hoover.

At this meeting Mr. Hoover and Mr. Fieser suggested that the Colored Advisory Commission make another survey of the flood area in the fall to see how the reconstruction program was being carried out.

The second survey was made in late November and on December 6th the Commission assembled at Tuskegee Institute to compare notes and compile a second report to be submitted to the Red Cross.

The data submitted showed that in several communities rations were being distributed through the agency of landlords instead of direct to the tenants, a procedure which was contrary to the announced and printed policy of the National Red Cross, and which gave foundation to rumors in certain places that colored refugees were being charged for the rations to which they were entitled without cost. Discrimination in the distribution of building material, furniture, live stock, seed, medical supplies, etc., was also reported in a few instances.

To meet this situation the Commission, in its recommendations, reiterated its former statement asking for full colored representation in the administration of the reconstruction program and urged that the three State Assistants appointed in July be given "full authority to inspect the records of local Red Cross officials," and that each one "be given a corps of experienced Negro workers of their own selection to assist in surveying and remedying the unsatisfactory conditions in their respective states."

When the report of the meeting of December 6th was presented to Secretary Hoover, Judge Payne, Mr. Fieser, and other Red Cross officials at a subsequent meeting in Washington on December 12th, there was prompt and determined action on the part of these officials as the following telegram from Mr. Hoover to Dr. Moton will attest:

"In order that there can be no mistake or failure in this situation, I have suggested that the three Colored State Reconstruction Officers comprise a committee, advisory to the Red Cross; and that each of them shall strengthen their staff of colored assistants to a number equal to the National Red Cross representatives in the different counties so that each Red Cross National representative shall have a colored assistant attached; that these assistants undertake at once a complete survey of the entire situation, bringing every case of failure or neglect to the immediate attention of the Red Cross representative who will at once investigate and find remedy. They should be able to report on the general situation in complete detail by the end of January, when we propose to again go into the whole question."

Fortified with this authority, which more clearly outlined the basis of inter-racial cooperation, the state leaders among the colored people, together with their staffs of workers, took hold of the task with renewed vigor and without their previous reluctance to proceed without invitation from the white state officials.

Activities of the State Groups
The three Negro state organizations were set up and ready for work by January 1, 1928, and their immediate task was divided into the four following activities:

(a) Locating colored refugees who were entitled to receive benefit, but who for one reason or another had not applied.
(b) Surveying and reporting those communities where discrimination in distributing supplies existed.
(c) Insuring equitable distribution of supplies by anticipating and preventing discrimination against Negroes.
(d)Explaining and interpreting to Negroes the National Red Cross program and policies of supplying food, feed, seed, farm implements, etc.

To accomplish this task required quick and precise thinking, tact, and a very elastic spirit of cooperation. This period, while not as hazardous as the rescue stage, was none the less critical for the reason that it affected the return of the refugees to their homes upon a somewhat altered economic basis due to the disintegration of some of the larger plantation systems.

The splendid work of the closing weeks of the reconstruction period not only brought credit to Messrs. Clark, McCoy, and Ray, for their ability to organize and direct the work, but it demonstrated Dr. Moton's wisdom in selection after the Red Cross had agreed to authorize this more intensive program.

It is also significant that, in spite of fear in some quarters that this added service by colored people would increase inter-racial friction, its effect was just the opposite for there was less friction and fewer rumors disturbing to colored people than at any stage in the entire operation.

Perhaps the spirit of this inter-racial experiment is best shown in the following comment in a letter from T. J. McCarty, Red Cross State Reconstruction officer for Louisiana, to Dr. Clark:

"I wish to attest to your sane judgment in administration, to you intimate knowledge of rural needs of the South, to you spirit of fairness in not once making an unreasonable request, and to your loyalty to your own people, with due regards always to the needs of others and to Red Cross policy."

Six thousand two hundred forty-eight (6,248) Negro families in Louisiana were visited. Thirty-one (31) homes were rebuilt and 733 repaired; 1,179 head of live stock and 8,092 chickens distributed. Other distributions to colored families included: 43,998 bushels of cotton seed, 146,400 bushels of seed corn, and 16,151 packages of garden seed.

Under the leadership of Mr. Ray, the Arkansas group first made a two weeks' survey to find colored families who still needed reconstruction assistance. Eight hundred ninety-three (893) such families were found and immediately aided. The Arkansas survey also showed that, with the exception of a few instances, the colored people were being well treated when the full colored state committee entered the field. Mr. Ray's report says:

"The work of repairing and rebuilding homes was very satisfactory and only in a few instances was it necessary to request building material at the time our survey was made."

In the letter transmitting his report of the work of the Mississippi committee, Dr. McCoy said of the Red Cross program: "It was more rigidly adhered to after the colored workers were put into the field."

In Mississippi 5,720 colored families were visited and 23,463 homes were rebuilt, 4,808 other buildings were repaired and 8,635 families received an allowance of seed.

The two months' intensive work of the state colored organizations not only contributed to the splendid results about enumerated, but aided very substantially in bringing the reconstruction period to a satisfactory close.

The Future
In retrospect, the accomplishments of the Colored Advisory Commission in aiding the Red Cross to restore the colored refugees to their homes under healthier and more generally satisfactory economic conditions justified the confidence and wisdom of the Red Cross in giving the colored people some responsibilities in connection with a disaster which affected such a large number of their own people.

The work of the Commission also contributed a very definite economic service to the South in shortening the period of non-production and hastening the resumption of trade in agricultural products upon which the commercial structure of the South is dependent.

In prospect, a valuable precedent has been established as a guide for the future, should a similar emergency arise.

Enumerating some results of the flood Dr. Moton recently said in a magazine article:

"First, the breaking up of the large plantations is encouraging the ownership of small farm units, and pointing the way to liberate both the white plantation owner and his Negro tenant from the more or less precarious one-crop system, which holds both groups in virtual slavery because it is founded upon an unsound and unstable economic principle.

"Second, the example set by Secretary Hoover and approved by Judge Payne, Mr. Fiesner and other Red Cross officials, in inviting the colored people to assist them in this crisis, demonstrates the wisdom and helpfulness of inter-racial cooperation, in all matters affecting the colored people -- an example which could well be followed by all branches of our Government including federal, state and municipal."

The American National Red Cross Mississippi Valley Flood Relief
Final Financial Statement

Total Collections -- $17,498,902.16
Less Transfers -- $504,033.55*
Balance -- $16,994,868.61

Expenditures (by projects):
Rescue Work -- $648,178.79
Equipment for Relief Camps -- 447,747.68
Transportation of Refugees -- 145,128.28
Maintenance of Disaster Sufferers -- 125,267.94
Food -- 5,122,211.78
Clothing -- 353,179.57
Seed -- 2,648,012.20
Feed for Live Stock -- 2,444,670.35
Live Stock and Poultry -- 333,573.20
Building and Repairs -- 1,832,510.70
Sanitation -- 300,315.54
Medical and Nursing Service -- 346,638.24
Service Relief -- 922,424.71
Provision for Chapter Continuation of Service and Relief -- 200,639.34
Other Relief Expenditures -- 437,609.11

Total -- $16,994,868.61

*Represents the total of the amounts allotted to the following disaster relief operations within or adjacent to the same territory and occurring during the course of this relief operation. Separate published reports have been issued on these operations.

Expenditures (by States):
Arkansas -- $3,828,757.04
Illinois -- 150,850.27
Kentucky -- 134,434.55
Louisiana -- 5,730,671.03
Mississippi -- 5,396,296.82
Missouri -- 420,432.24
Tennessee -- 169,573.13
Undistributed -- 1,163,853.53

Total -- $16,994,868.61

Oklahoma Storm Relief, 1927 -- $36,770.66
Eastern Arkansas and Missouri Tornado, 1927 -- 127,262.89
Eastern Kentucky Flood, 1927 -- 100,000.00
Arkansas-Missouri Floods, 1928 -- 210,000.00
Western Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana Floods, 1928 -- 30,000.00

Total - $504,033.55

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