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The American Experience
America's reaction to the Holocaust
1933 President Roosevelt's New Deal creates agencies that hire by "merit system," resulting in more opportunities for Jews.
January 30 -- Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany.
March 20 -- The Nazis establish their first concentration camp: Dachau.
March 23 -- Germany passes the Enabling Act, giving Hitler dictatorial powers.
March 27 -- Mass anti-Nazi rally held in Madison Square Garden, New York.
April 7 -- Nazis' first anti-Semitic decree removes all Jews from the civil service.
September -- Nazis enact the Nuremberg Laws. Among other things they deprive German Jews of the right to vote and hold public office, and they outlaw marriages between Jews and non-Jews.
Hitler and MussoliniOctober 25 -- Hitler and Mussolini form Rome-Berlin Axis.
November -- Landslide re-election victory for President Roosevelt, with nearly complete Jewish support.
March 13 -- "Anschluss:" Germany annexes Austria.
April 26 -- German Jews required to register their property.
July -- Convened by President Roosevelt, 32 countries meet at the Evian Conference in France to discuss refugee problem. Little is accomplished; most Western countries unwilling to accept Jewish refugees.
September 29 -- Munich Agreement is signed. Britain and France accept Hitler's annexation of Sudetenland.
November 9-10 -- "Kristallnacht," The Night of Broken Glass. Throughout Germany and Austria, the Nazis destroy Jewish property and deport some 30,000 Jews to concentration camps.
signNovember 12 -- All Jewish retail establishments in Germany ordered to cease business by end of year.
February - June -- Wagner-Rogers Bill proposes admitting 20,000 German refugee children to the U.S. The bill dies in committee.
March 15 -- Germany occupies Czechoslovakia.
SS St. LouisMay - June -- The S.S. St. Louis, carrying 930 Jewish refugees, is turned away by Cuba. The U.S. refuses to admit the refugees, who are forced to return to Europe.
May -- British government issues a White Paper which restricts future Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 over the next five years.
September 1 -- Germany invades Poland.
September 3 -- Britain and France declare war on Germany.
November -- Germans have killed more than 16,000 Polish civilians in first six weeks of war. Five thousand of them are Jewish.
May 10 -- Germany launches attacks against Holland, Luxembourg, Belgium and France.
June -- Germans establish the Auschwitz concentration camp.
June 22 -- France surrenders to Germany. Marshall Pétain signs armistice with Germany
September 7 -- German begins massive bombing campaign on London.
October 22 -- Germany deports 15,000 from the Rhineland to internment camps in France.
November -- Warsaw Ghetto created.

1933 - 1940 | 1941 - 1942 | 1943 | 1944 - 1945