Foreign Affairs / Defense


53:51Syria Behind the LinesApr. 9, 2013
50:01The Battle for SyriaSep. 18, 2012
30:00Al Qaeda In YemenMay. 29, 2012
17:17The Secret WarJan. 3, 2012
53:35A Perfect TerroristNov. 22, 2011


Egypt Bans Muslim Brotherhood Activity, Freezes Funds

The military-backed Egyptian government takes another step in its aggressive crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood.

Is There Hope for Democracy In Egypt? — Live Chat Transcript

Join a live chat about “Egypt in Crisis” with correspondent Charles Sennott, producer Marcela Gaviria, and NBC Egypt Correspondent Ayman Mohyeldin. You can leave a question now.

Revolution in Cairo

Khaled Fahmy: Sisi Is “Much More Dangerous”

“I don’t want to go to demonstrations and funerals and morgues, which is what I have been doing for the past two and a half years. But something is wrong in how this whole thing is unfolding. Something fundamentally is wrong.”

Wael Haddara: “We Lost Our Country” on July 3

“If the street becomes the way of removing a democratically elected president one year into his mandate, then no other presidency will survive in the future.”

Mona Makram-Ebeid: “The Struggle is for Egypt’s Soul”

“From every side there are challenges to this transitional phase, and we are living in a very turbulent time. So that’s why the first priority should be to restore order and to prevent any more violence.”

Timeline: What’s Happened Since Egypt’s Revolution?

After Mubarak stepped down in 2011, Egypt was full of hope for change. Here’s what happened next.

Dig Deeper: More on Egypt’s Political Turmoil

A collection of readings on Egypt, the revolution and its new leader, Sisi.

Muslim Brotherhood Spokesman Detained in Cairo

Gehad El-Haddad, who is featured in tonight’s Egypt in Crisis, was arrested this morning on suspicion of inciting violence and murder.

The Deep State: How Egypt’s Shadow State Won Out

Since Mubarak’s ouster, the military has quietly maneuvered not only to remain in power but to tighten its control of every facet of Egyptian governance, from the state-run media to the presidency.

Press Release: Egypt in Crisis

FRONTLINE tells the inside story of a revolution gone wrong.

Emails Shed New Light on Military Sexual Assault Case

Recently released Air Force emails shed light on how a high-profile conviction was overturned.

The U.S. Plans to Strike Syria. What Then?

Limited airstrikes aren’t likely to end a conflict that’s claimed more than 100,000 lives.

Just the “Facts”: What We Know About the NSA Spying on Americans

New details keep emerging – the latest includes NSA employees tracking their love interests’ communications.

Just the “Facts”: How Good Are the “Checks” on NSA Surveillance?

Obama says the “checks” on the NSA’s surveillance program are in place. But who’s doing the checking?

Bradley Manning Sentenced to 35 Years for WikiLeaks

Bradley Manning was sentenced to a little more than half of what the government wanted him to serve.

Just How Damaging Were Manning’s WikiLeaks?

U.S. officials are presenting evidence at Manning’s sentencing hearing this week. So far, there isn’t much.

Manning Acquitted of “Aiding the Enemy,” But Guilty of Wiki Leaks

PFC Bradley Manning, the 25 year old who has acknowledged leaking classified documents to WikiLeaks, faces a maximum of 136 years in jail.

For Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, a Return to the Underground

In the aftermath of the toppling of President Mohamed Morsi, the Islamist party appears to be retreating into its historical narrative as an underground movement.

WikiLeaks Ruling Could Set Chilling Precedent for Leakers

A military judge ruled that prosecutors could pursue the “aiding the enemy” charge against Bradley Manning.

Who’s Who In Egypt’s Widening Political Divide?

The growing political unrest in Egypt has begun to split families over what’s best for the future of the nation, reports Charles M. Sennott from Cairo.

Tensions Rise Between Muslim Brotherhood & Egyptian Military

FRONTLINE’s cameras were there when deadly clashes killed seven and wounded more than 260 last night.

Egypt Divided: U.S. Government Emerges as a Common Foe

The two sides may be bitterly divided, but they seem to agree on at least one thing: that the United States is at fault for the mess in which Egypt finds itself.

“The Brothers”

As Egyptians revolt again, revisit FRONTLINE’s February 2011 exploration of the Muslim Brotherhood and its profound influence on Egyptian society.

Speed of Bradley Manning Trial Masks Prosecutors’ Struggles

Prosecutors have struggled to show that Manning was following directions from WikiLeaks, which could be key in establishing the charge of “aiding the enemy.”

Can the U.S. Keep Its Weapons From Extremists in Syria?

With the Obama administration moving to arm Syrian rebels, most experts believe the task will be difficult, if not impossible.

The Changing Shape of Syria’s Civil War

From the very beginning, it was clear Syria would be a long and bloody civil war that would rip into the very heart of the Middle East, says FRONTLINE filmmaker Ramita Navai.


Oct. 17, 2006

The Lost Year in Iraq

(60 minutes) Was the violence convulsing Iraq inevitable? Examining the initial, critical postwar decisions of the U.S.-led regime in Baghdad. (Web site »)
Feb. 7, 2006

Sex Slaves

(60 minutes) An estimated half-million women are trafficked annually for the purpose of sexual slavery. The women are kidnapped -- or lured by traffickers who prey on their dreams of employment abroad -- then they are "exported" to Europe, the Middle East, the United States, and elsewhere, where they are sold to pimps, drugged, terrorized, locked in brothels, and raped repeatedly. In Eastern Europe, since the fall of communism, sex trafficking has become the fastest growing form of organized crime, with Moldova and Ukraine widely seen as the centers of the global trade in women and girls. On Feb. 7, FRONTLINE presents a unique hidden camera look at this world of sexual slavery, talking with traffickers and their victims, and exposing the government indifference that allows the abuses to continue virtually unchecked. Sex Slaves also follows the remarkable journey of one man determined to find his trafficked wife by posing as a trafficker himself to buy back her freedom. (Web site »)
Apr. 19, 2005

Death of a Princess

(120 minutes) Twenty-five years after the initial broadcast of perhaps the most controversial program in the history of public television FRONTLINE re-issues "Death of a Princess." The 1980 docudrama recounting the public execution of a young Saudi Arabian princess and her lover for adultery triggered vehement protests from the Saudi government and an international uproar when it was first broadcast in the U.S. and Britain. The film which re-creates journalist Antony Thomas's journey through the Arab world to investigate the executions is a portrait of the constricted lives of Arab women and a Rashomon-like exploration of the elusiveness of journalistic truth. This special presentation will feature new interviews with the filmmakers an inside view of the controversies surrounding the film and an analysis of how the lives of Arab women have and have not changed. (Web site »)
Feb. 8, 2005

House of Saud

(120 minutes) The House of Saud has controlled every aspect of Saudi life and politics since the kingdom was established in 1932. But outside the Desert Kingdom little is known about Saudi Arabia's secretive royal family. In "House of Saud" FRONTLINE explores how the Al Saud family maintains its hold on power in the face of growing tensions between Islam and modernity. Through interviews with members of the royal family government officials and other experts from Saudi Arabia and the U.S. the two-hour documentary also traces America's relations with the Saudi royal family from their first alliance in the 1930s through September 11 and beyond to the present day. (Web site »)
Jan. 25, 2005

Al Qaeda's New Front

(60 minutes) With Europe now targeted, what are the new realities in the battle against Islamic terrorism? (Web site »)
Oct. 26, 2004

Rumsfeld's War

(90 minutes) Donald Rumsfeld's contentious battle inside the Pentagon to reshape the way America's military thinks and fights. (Web site »)
Apr. 22, 2004

Son of Al Qaeda

(60 minutes) The remarkable story of a young Canadian who grew up with bin Laden's children, but ended up becoming a CIA informant. (Web site »)
Apr. 1, 2004

Ghosts of Rwanda

(120 minutes) FRONTLINE marks the 10th anniversary of the Rwandan genocide with a documentary chronicling one of the worst atrocities of the 20th century. In addition to interviews with key government officials and diplomats, the two-hour documentary offers groundbreaking, eyewitness accounts of the genocide from those who experienced it firsthand: from Tutsi survivors who recount the horror of seeing their friends and family members slaughtered by neighbors and coworkers; to the UN peacekeepers stationed amid the carnage who were ordered not to intervene; to those holding positions of power at the White House. Through these accounts, FRONTLINE illustrates the social, political, and diplomatic failures that enabled the slaughter of 800,000 people to occur unabated and unchallenged by the global community. (Web site »)
Feb. 26, 2004

The Invasion of Iraq

(120 minutes) FRONTLINE marks the first anniversary of the Iraqi War with a two-hour documentary investigation that recounts the key strategies, battles, and turning points of the war from both sides of the battlefield. Through firsthand accounts from many of the war's key participants--from strategists in Washington to the soldiers who actually fought the battles--"The Invasion of Iraq" promises to be a definitive television history of America's most recent war. (Web site »)
Feb. 12, 2004

Beyond Baghdad

(60 minutes) A five-week journey across Iraq looking at what it will take to stabilize the volatile nation and bring democracy. (Web site »)
Jan. 22, 2004

Chasing Saddam's Weapons

(60 minutes) With the credibility of President Bush and Prime Minister Blair at stake, BBC reporter Jane Corbin takes viewers inside the high-stakes search for Saddam Hussein's alleged weapons of mass destruction. Through exclusive access to top-secret locations and key U.S. officials leading the hunt, including David Kay, FRONTLINE reveals new details about what the search has uncovered and questions whether the investigation's final results will justify the White House's call for war. (Web site »)
Jan. 15, 2004

From China With Love

(60 minutes) An alleged Chinese double agent, her FBI lover, and the unanswered question: was U.S. national security compromised? (Web site »)
Apr. 24, 2003

Cyber War!

(60 minutes) How vulnerable is America to an attack from cyberspace? And what would be the prime targets? (Web site »)
Apr. 10, 2003

Kim's Nuclear Gamble

(60 minutes) The inside story of the highly unstable U.S.-North Korea relationship and how we've arrived at the current crisis. (Web site »)
Apr. 3, 2003

Blair's War

(60 minutes) For the past few months, British Prime Minister Tony Blair has been fighting the biggest political battle of his career. Caught in the center of a high stakes political storm, he tried to personally bridge the gap between the United States and its European allies -- particularly France and Germany -- over the impending war in Iraq. FRONTLINE examines the roots of the discord within the Western alliance, the perilous role Blair has played, and the stakes for him and the West should this old alliance fall apart. (Web site »)
Mar. 17, 2003

The Long Road to War: A FRONTLINE Special Report

(120 minutes) America appears to be within days of attacking Iraq. Many observers believe President Bush may soon signal to weapons inspectors, diplomats and members of the press that Iraq will come under fire and they should leave the country. Once again, the U.S finds itself about to battle Iraq, although this time it will likely not be part of a grand coalition. How did the nation come to the brink of war of another war with Saddam Hussein? In a two-hour special "The Long Road to War," FRONTLINE draws on its extensive archives of more than 12 years of reporting on Iraq to tell the history of the U.S. confrontation with Saddam. The special will examine how the West armed Iraq, the mind and methods of Saddam Hussein, the origins of the first Gulf War and its ragged end, the frustrating effort to disarm Iraq through U.N. inspections, how Saddam survived efforts to undermine his power, and the long-standing effort by Washington hawks to remove him. (Web site »)
Feb. 13, 2003

China in the Red

(120 minutes) A look at a nation in the midst of an epic transformation and ordinary people living in extraordinary times. (Web site »)
Nov. 21, 2002

In Search of Al Qaeda

(60 minutes) FRONTLINE's 10,000 mile journey that conveys just what the U.S. is up against. (Web site »)
Oct. 10, 2002

Missile Wars

(60 minutes) In a post-9/11 world, should a missile defense shield be part of the U.S. strategic defense policy? (Web site »)
Sep. 8, 2002

Campaign Against Terror

(120 minutes) In this two-hour special, FRONTLINE recounts for the first time on television the behind-the-scenes story of the U.S. and world response to the September 11 terrorist attacks on America. Featuring interviews with key U.S. players and world leaders, "Campaign Against Terror" examines the complex diplomatic maneuvering that led to an international coalition against Al Qaeda and the Taliban. From the initial bombing raids to the futile hunt for Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda leaders in the caves of Tora Bora, the documentary traces the dramatic ups and downs of the ground war in Afghanistan as seen through the eyes of Pentagon leaders, U.S. Special Forces troops and Afghan rebel leaders in the Northern Alliance. Finally, " Campaign Against Terror " tracks the intricate political wrangling that led to the selection of Hamid Karzai - America's preferred candidate - as the new Afghan leader. (Web site »)
Jun. 27, 2002

Shattered Dreams

(120 minutes) In the Summer of 2000, Israeli and Palestinian negotiators were on the brink of reaching a peace agreement. After years of negotiation, both sides seemed ready to move forwardnever before had the dream of peace seemed so close. Within weeks, however, the window of opportunity had closed and the peace process had collapsed. What went wrong? As the Middle East continues to erupt in violence between Israelis and Palestinians, FRONTLINE examines the faltering, frustrating quest for peace. Beginning with the 1995 assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, this two-hour documentary traces the ongoing peace process through years of negotiations and up through the chaotic events now unfolding. With never-before-seen footage of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations and interviews with key figures on both sides of the bargaining table, "Shattered Dreams" gives viewers unprecedented access to the decision making process on which the fate of millions depends. (Web site »)
Jun. 13, 2002

The Siege of Bethlehem

(60 minutes) On April 2, as Israeli tanks rolled into Bethlehem, some 200 Palestinians - many of them armed - stormed into the fabled Church of the Nativity. They remained there for 39 days, as the standoff between Israeli soldiers and Palestinian militants at one of the world's most revered holy sites kept the world transfixed. In "The Seige of Bethlehem," FRONTLINE takes viewers inside the siege at the Church of the Nativity. With unprecedented inside access to key figures on both sides of the standoff, FRONTLINE reveals the secret negotiations, strategies, gambits, and maneuvers employed throughout the siege, as the combatants sought to maintain the delicate balance between diplomatic persuasion and military might. (Web site »)
May. 9, 2002


(120 minutes) The events of Sept. 11 left many Americans questioning how such atrocities could be perpetrated in the name of religion: specifically, the religion of Islam. Few Americans know much about Islam, yet it continues to be the fastest growing religion in the US today. What is Islam? What do Muslims believe in? And how does their faith shape their lives, identities and their political ideologies? FRONTLINE explores these and other questions in "Muslims," a special two-hour report that examines the fundamental tenets of Islam and the causes behind its current worldwide resurgence.Through interviews with dozens of ordinary Muslims from such diverse countries as Iran, Malaysia, Turkey, and the U.S., FRONTLINE illuminates the perspectives, conflicts, and tensions that are shaping today's Muslim world. (Web site »)
May. 2, 2002

Terror and Tehran

(60 minutes) FRONTLINE investigates the terror threat from Iran and the challenges facing U.S. policymakers. President Bush has declared Iran part of an 'axis of evil.' But will U.S. actions against Iran help or hinder Iranian moderates' struggle to reform the hard-line government of Iran? (Web site »)
Apr. 4, 2002

Battle for the Holy Land

(60 minutes) As Israelis and Palestinians prepare for possible all-out war, FRONTLINE investigates how the combatants pursue the deadly conflict on the ground. How did a war that was once fought with stones evolve into a battle involving suicide bombings and targeted killings? Through exclusive access to Israeli commando units and Palestinian militants, FRONTLINE reveals the tactics and strategies behind the fighting and reports on the latest cycle of violence to unfold in the Holy Land. (Web site »)
Jan. 17, 2002

Inside the Terror Network

(60 minutes) The hijackers of September 11 led such outwardly ordinary lives that they moved through Europe and America virtually unnoticed. They plotted in broad daylight, weaving a web of terror from the simple routines of modern life. American flight schools taught them to fly, local banks helped them move money, libraries provided computers, and the Department of Motor Vehicles supplied essential IDs. Everywhere they went they blended in unnoticed and unsuspected. FRONTLINE traces the hijackers' movements across four continents, following clues they left behind to unearth the stories of the individuals inside Osama bin Laden's terror network. (Web site »)
Nov. 15, 2001

Saudi Time Bomb?

(60 minutes) President Bush says that if the nations of the world are not with us in the war on terrorism then theyre with the terrorists. But what about the United States' supposed ally Saudi Arabia? After September 11th many Saudi citizens reportedly applauded native son Osama bin Laden as a hero. Then the monarchy hesitated to renounce the Taliban and they are still reluctant to allow U.S. warplanes to fly from their bases. Why have Saudi and other Gulf charities sent money to support Islamic fundamentalist schools that are encouraging jihad? And are the Saudis dragging their feet when it comes to assisting U.S. law enforcement agencies that are tracking down terrorists? Whose side are the Saudis on? FRONTLINE and The New York Times explore the fragile alliance with this ultra conservative fundamentalist kingdom upon which the U.S. depends for fifteen percent of the countrys oil needs. (Web site »)
Nov. 8, 2001

Gunning for Saddam

(60 minutes) As Americans are confronted by acts of bioterrorism, powerful forces in the nations capitol believe Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is to blame, for this and many other terrorist acts during the last decade. Many are lobbying to mobilize a military operation to oust Hussein when the next phase of the war on terrorism kicks in. Proponents of the plan, including former Clinton administration CIA director James Woolsey, contend Saddam Hussein was involved in the first World Trade Center bombing, the attempted assassination of President George H.W. Bush in 1993, and the ongoing state sponsorship of terrorist activities. Foes of this plan argue that attacking Saddam will destabilize other nations in the region, most prominently Saudi Arabia, and no doubt destroy the carefully crafted coalition presently hunting for Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. FRONTLINE investigates Americas other enemy, Saddam Hussein. (Web site »)
Oct. 25, 2001

Trail of a Terrorist

(60 minutes) On December 14, 1999, Ahmed Ressam was detained at the U.S./Canadian border when an alert customs agent became suspicious of Ressam's hesitant answers to her questions. When the trunk of his car was opened, agents discovered a powerful bomb and a plot for a millennium attack on America. Ressam said nothing at his trial but, facing 130 years in prison, decided to testify against an accomplice. His chilling testimony reveals his motives, his methods, and his connection to an Algerian terrorist group that had already carried out bombings in Europe. Ressam described his training at the Osama bin Laden camps in Afghanistan, where he became skilled in urban warfare, sabotage, and covert operations. With access to Ressams testimony, police files, and officials in the U.S., Canada, and France, correspondent Terence McKenna follows the trail of a terrorist. (Web site »)
Oct. 18, 2001

Dangerous Straits

(60 minutes) Since the terrible events of Sept 11th, the United States has worked hard to put together a worldwide coalition against international terrorism. Where will China come down? FRONTLINE and The New York Times explore the tensions between the U.S. and China and the troubles the relationship presents for President Bush, who plans a visit to China in October. The dramatic U.S. spy plane incident off the coast of China in early 2001 reminded us of the dangerous suspicion that exists between the world's most powerful country and its most populous one. China has been supportive of some Islamic states that the U.S. counts as its enemies, and there is also the simmering question of Taiwan. American support for Taiwan means that if it declares independence, the U.S. could be drawn into an international dispute that might lead to war. The Straits of Taiwan have been described by one China expert as "one of the most dangerous places in the world." (Web site »)
Oct. 9, 2001

Looking For Answers

(60 minutes) The attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon was not only the most devastating terrorist attack in history, it was also the biggest failure of U.S. intelligence since Pearl Harbor. FRONTLINE correspondent Lowell Bergman and The New York Times investigate why the CIA and FBI failed to uncover the hijackers dramatic plot to strike at the heart of the U.S. government and its economy. The film also examines the U.S. failure to understand fully the hatred for America among Muslim fundamentalists, and its roots in the U.S. government's support for Israel and for authoritarian regimes in the oil-rich Middle East. A FRONTLINE co-production with The New York Times, this special episode is anchored by Bill Moyers. (Web site »)
Oct. 4, 2001

Target America

(60 minutes) Last month, the nation's top leaders gathered to decide the U.S response to the September 11 terrorist attack. Some of the same individuals were in Washington, DC, twenty-two years ago when the United States suffered its first humiliation at the hands of Islamic militants. U.S. embassy employees were taken hostage and held captive before the world. Over the decades, incident followed incident - the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut, the killing of American soldiers in a Berlin nightclub, the downing of Pan Am 103, and the first attack on the World Trade Center. In "Target America," FRONTLINE uncovers a long-standing division within the nation's security apparatus about how to deal with an enemy that has been targeting America and Americans for decades. (Web site »)
Sep. 13, 2001

Hunting Bin Laden

(60 minutes) Osama bin Laden is charged with masterminding the 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in East Africa, believed to have had a role in the October 2000 attack on the USS Cole in the Yemeni port of Aden, and now is a prime suspect in the Sept. 11, 2001 destruction of the World Trade Center and the bombing of the Pentagon. This report features reporting by a Pulitzer-Prize nominated team of New York Times reporters and FRONTLINE correspondent Lowell Bergman.<br><br>Tracing the trail of evidence linking bin Laden to terrorist attacks, this updated report includes interviews with Times reporters Judith Miller and James Risen and former CIA official Larry Johnson. They discuss the terrorist attacks which are linked, or are likely linked, to bin Laden's complex network of terrorists, outline the elements of his international organization and details of its alliances and tactics, and address the challenges confronting U.S. intelligence in trying to crack it. (Web site »)
Feb. 6, 2001

Saving Elian

(60 minutes) On November 25, 1999, a five-year-old Cuban boy was plucked from the shark infested waters off Florida, and what began as a Thanksgiving story soon erupted into a political and social firestorm that transfixed the nation and rocked Miami's Cuban-American community to its core. FRONTLINE examines the passion and the purpose behind the battle over Elin Gonzalez and its effect on both the Miami community and the Cuban-American cause. With footage from Miami and Cuba, and interviews with participants and observers on both sides of the controversy, the documentary explores how one little boy became a symbol of a forty-year struggle for the future of a nation. (Web site »)
Oct. 24, 2000

The Future of War

(60 minutes) The U.S. Army is experiencing an identity crisis brought on by the end of the Cold War. As it heads into the 21st century, the nations largest military service is struggling to keep pace with changing technology, changing enemies and increasingly global missions. FRONTLINE examines the armys internal debate between those promoting change and those resisting it, and how todays decisions may impact the outcome of wars fought decades from now. (Web site »)
Oct. 9, 2000

Drug Wars

(240 minutes) In 1968, the federal drug enforcement budget was $60 million. By the end of fiscal year 1999, that same budget had exploded to more than $17 billion. Yet despite the United States' vast efforts during the past three decades to stop the flow of illegal drugs, the use of heroin, cocaine, marijuana and other illicit drugs remains essentially unchanged. FRONTLINE presents the first television history of America's war on drugs as told from both sides of the battlefield in a special four-hour report. Part I recounts the origins of the anti-drug campaign, from the Nixon administration's drug control efforts to the rapid rise and fall of the Colombian drug cartels.<br><br>In Part II of "Drug Wars," FRONTLINE examines the impact of crack cocaine on our city streets and our criminal justice system. The report also investigates Mexico's role in supplying drugs to meet American demand. (Web site »)
May. 9, 2000

Return of the Czar

(60 minutes) Almost a decade after the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia is arguably more free than at any time in its history. But while the West has applauded the market reforms of former President Boris Yeltsin, in Russia there has been collapse. Today, as the country is being militarized, anti-Western propaganda is increasing. In pushing its ideas of reform, did the U.S. turn a blind eye to Kremlin illegality and compromise the moral authority America cultivated throughout the Cold War? As career KGB officer Vladimir Putin-Yeltsin's annointed successor-is set to ascend to Russia's presidency, FRONTLINE takes an in-depth look at what Russia has become and why. (Web site »)
Feb. 22, 2000

War in Europe

(120 minutes) Twelve months ago, in the skies above Kosovo, NATO went to war. It was a war that unleashed terrible brutality. On one side was a ruthless leader-Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic-who claimed history was on his side. On the other, an alliance whose politicians believed that this was a crusade for moral values. It was a war where the politicians, rather than the military commanders, dictated the battlefield strategy and tactics. At its end, the war had produced one million refugees, thousands of civilian deaths, and a broken land still without peace. FRONTLINE correspondent Peter Boyer undertakes the first in-depth examination of a European war rife with diplomatic infighting and military stumbling. (Web site »)
Jan. 25, 2000

The Survival of Saddam

(60 minutes) When the Gulf War ended, the United States government believed the Iraqis would quickly overthrow Saddam Hussein. But nine years later, he still rules Iraq. FRONTLINE investigates Saddam's ruthless rise to power and how he has maintained his grip despite pressure from economic sanctions, no-fly zones, UN weapons inspectors, and military attacks from the Iraqi opposition. (Web site »)
Oct. 12, 1999

Mafia Power Play

(60 minutes) FRONTLINE investigates how the tentacles of Russian organized crime have penetrated the National Hockey League. The report exposes how major Russian crime figures are extorting Russian-born players and using their hockey connections to establish a beachhead in the U.S. and Canada. Over the course of a ten-month investigation, FRONTLINE conducted dozens of interviews with sources in the Russian underworld, professional hockey representatives and law enforcement agencies in Russia, the U.S., and Canada.<br><br>FRONTLINE's web site deepens this report with excerpts from congressional hearings and law enforcement reports, plus the extended interviews and profiles of central figures. (Web site »)
May. 11, 1999

Give War A Chance

(60 minutes) FRONTLINE explores the bitter divide between military and civilian attitudes about where, when,and why America employs military force. In examining the gulf between what American diplomats want and what the military is prepared to deliver, correspondent Peter J. Boyer follows the inevitable collision from Vietnam to the Balkans between diplomat Richard Holbrooke and Admiral Leighton Smith. Their careers, and ultimate clash, represent the most vivid example of this critical foreign policy dilemma <br><br>Special reports on FRONTLINE's web site include one examining the evolution of the doctrine on the use of military force and, a chronology of significant U.S. military interventions over the past 30 years. Also published on the site is an analysis of the new kind of diplomacy--'nation-building' backed by military might. Several top experts debate the pros and cons. The site also offers brief biographies of Holbrooke and Smith, parallel chronologies of their lives and careers, and, a selection of key readings on the issues examined in the FRONTLINE broadcast. (Web site »)
Apr. 27, 1999

Spying on Saddam

(60 minutes) In the wake of Desert Fox, the U.S. assault on Iraq last December,UNSCOM--the special UN commission created to find and destroy Saddam Hussein's weapons of mass destruction--has disintegrated amid charges it was really a spy agency. Scott Ritter, former U.S. Marine and UNSCOM inspector, claims U.S. Intelligence destroyed UNSCOM's credibility when American spies penetrated and compromised the UN arms inspection teams. FRONTLINE investigates Ritter's charges and asks, who really killed UNSCOM? (Web site »)
Apr. 13, 1999

Hunting Bin Laden

(60 minutes) Investigating Osama bin Laden, his network, and his role in terrorist attacks on America. (Web site »)
Feb. 23, 1999

Russian Roulette

(60 minutes) The Cold War is ended, but the threat of a nuclear nightmare is far from over. In 1995 Russian President Yeltsin came within two minutes of launching a nuclear attack because of faulty signals from Russia's crumbling early warning system. FRONTLINE's investigation into the safety and security of the Russian nuclear arsenal presents interviews with U.S. and Russian military commanders about the menacing potential for catastrophe. It also includes top Russian military discussing missing Russian nuclear suitcase bombs and U.S Customs agents describing the first credible case of a scenario to smuggle tactical nuclear weapons in the U.S. <br><br>The web site will offer more details on nuclear suitcase bombs and the tactical nuclear weapons smuggling case in Miami. Plus, extended interviews with nuclear policy experts and Russian nuclear commanders and maps of Russian nuclear facilities. (Web site »)
Jan. 26, 1999

The Triumph of Evil

(60 minutes) It is one of the most shameful stories of the post-Cold War world. One million Tutsis were slaughtered by the Hutu majority in Rwanda while the West turned a blind eye. As the U.N.s Genocide Conventioncreated to make sure genocide would never happen againmarks its fiftieth anniversary, FRONTLINE examines the role of the U.S. and the U.N. as they ignored the warnings and evidence of impending massacre in Rwanda.<br><br>FRONTLINE's web site delves deeper into the story, offering: the cables showing how the UN and Western powers ignored warnings and evidence of impending massacre; a chronology of the US and UN actions during the 100 days of slaughter;interviews with US/UN officials and writer Philip Gourevitch; an update on justice in Rwanda today;and readings on genocide and Hutu/Tutsi relations over two centuries.<br> (Web site »)
Sep. 29, 1998

Ambush in Mogadishu

(90 minutes) The story of the disastrous 1993 Delta Force/U.S. Rangers operation which still haunts the U.S. military. (Web site »)
May. 26, 1998

The World's Most Wanted Man

(90 minutes) FRONTLINE examines the dramatic hunt for Radovan Karadzic, the notorious Bosnian Serb leader indicted for atrocities by the War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague, but still at large in the former Yugoslavia. The film investigates Karadzic's rise to power, the war crimes committed during his rule, and why NATO and U.S. forces have failed to arrest him. (Web site »)
Jan. 20, 1998

Last Battle of the Gulf War

(60 minutes) In the years following the return home of the last U.S. troops who participated in ground war in the Persian Gulf, attention has turned from the historic victory to a strange new sickness the press has dubbed Gulf War Syndrome. But while many veterans believe something in the Gulf made them ill, scientists argue Gulf War veterans are not dying or being hospitalized at a higher-than-average rate. FRONTLINE tells the story of how Gulf War Syndrome came into existence, examining the psychology of war, the politics of veterans affairs, and the roles of the media and the biomedical research community. (Web site »)
Nov. 18, 1997

The Princess and the Press

(90 minutes) The day Princess Diana died in Paris, her brother, Earl Spencer, blamed the media for her death. FRONTLINE examines how the Royal Family's relationship with the British press, once governed by unwritten rules of privacy, evolved into the media circus that surrounded Princess Diana in her final years. (Web site »)
Oct. 28, 1997

Dreams of Tibet

(60 minutes) Journalist and China-watcher Orville Schell, who traveled secretly to Tibet for FRONTLINE in 1994, returns to a story that won't go away. Broadcast on the eve of Chinese premier Jiang Zemin's 1997 trip to Washington and at the same time that two new Hollywood films focus on Tibet, DREAMS OF TIBET looks at the new attention that is being paid to a country that has long been a political 'cause celebre.' Schell explores the clash of values between American opinion of China's human rights record -- shaped by powerful forces in Hollywood -- and an uncomprehending and intransigent Chinese leadership. (Web site »)
Oct. 21, 1997

Behind the Mask: The IRA and Sinn Fein

(120 minutes) FRONTLINE examines the secret history of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and its equally formidable political arm, Sinn Fein, which have waged a bloody campaign in Northern Ireland for over a quarter of a century. The film traces the history of the IRA and Sinn Fein, the most sophisticated guerrilla movement in the world, examining their tactics, weapons, and operational structures and assesses the chances of a final resolution to one of the century's oldest and bloodiest conflicts. (Web site »)
Oct. 14, 1997

The Lost American

(90 minutes) FRONTLINE explores the extraordinary life and mysterious disappearance of Fred Cuny, a passionate humanitarian and global trouble-shooter who traveled from Biafra to Bosnia, bringing hope to countless lives in need. A hero to some, a renegade to others, Cuny's strength lay in his ability to look beyond the immediate crisis -- drought, civil discord, earthquakes -- in order to restore a way of life. Like a character lifted from a John le Carre novel, Cuny was a larger-than-life, take-charge Texan with a hunger for lost causes. But after twenty-five years in the field, Cuny was tired of dealing with disasters after they happened instead of the underlying causes. He wanted to be a deal broker, to take a seat at the table where major policy is made. Did that ambition kill him? The investigation traces Cuny's last days in Chechnya, unravels the story of his disappearance, and explores the lessons of his life in an examination of America's responsibilites for the humanitarian disasters that plague our world. (Web site »)
Jun. 17, 1997

Nazi Gold

(60 minutes) It may be the final tragedy of the Holocaust. For years, many survivors and their families have tried in vain to collect assets deposited in Swiss banks before the war. Most were turned away empty-handed. Today, new information about Switzerland's financial relationship to the Nazi war effort has blemished its long-held reputation of neutrality. FRONTLINE examines the Swiss role in supporting Nazi Germany and explores the internal political events in Switzerland that allowed their border police to turn fleeing Jews away, into the hands of the Gestapo. The film also examines the Swiss response as they have been forced to address Holocaust survivors seeking reparations. (Web site »)
May. 20, 1997

The Opium Kings

(60 minutes) In a journalistic odyssey of more than three decades, filmmaker Adrian Cowell ventures into a remote corner of Burma known as Shan State, where much of the world's heroin originates. FRONTLINE chronicles the rise and fall of Khun Sa, a Shan nationalist leader and warlord who has long been a chief target of U.S. drug enforcement. In interviews with drug-war figures ranging from opium farmers to U.S. officials, Cowell unravels the complex political, economic, and diplomatic web that surrounds the heroin business. (Web site »)
Apr. 8, 1997

Murder, Money, and Mexico

(60 minutes) For six years, Carlos and Raul Salinas ruled Mexico -- Carlos as president, his brother Raul as his political fixer. The brothers convinced Washington, Wall Street, and the Mexican people a new age of political freedom and the prosperity had dawned for Mexico. But in 1994, within days of Salinas leaving office, the Mexican economy collapsed, throwing the world financial system into crisis and revealing a story of scandal, corruption, and murder which left Carlos in exile and Raul in prison. FRONTLINE follows this modern fable of two brothers, exploring the charges of corruption in the Salinas government and examining the fallout of Mexico's economic demise for America and the world. (Web site »)
Apr. 1, 1997

Valentina's Nightmare

(60 minutes) Four days after the slaughter of her village, Valentina, a thirteen-year-old Tutsi girl, lay hidden among the corpses of her family and neighbors, her machete wounds festering with infection. Miraculously, she would survive to tell her story. FRONTLINE looks back at the origins and the horrors of the 1994 massacre of 800,000 Tutsis by the Hutu majority in Rwanda and examines the country's struggle for justice and reconciliation in the aftermath of the bloody genocide. (Web site »)
Nov. 19, 1996

Loose Nukes

(60 minutes) FRONTLINE investigates the new nuclear nightmare of the post-Cold War era. While the fear of nuclear annihilation has faded, the security of 1,400 tons of weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium----enough nuclear material to make roughly 100,000 weapons----is vulnerable to theft in the former Soviet Union. Top American officials call its potential diversion to rogue states or terrorist groups a major threat to U.S. national security. FRONTLINE examines the most serious case of nuclear smuggling in Russia to date and explores the perilous state of nuclear security in a country already rife with chaos and corruption. (Web site »)
Oct. 15, 1996

The Navy Blues

(60 minutes) FRONTLINE examines the Navy after Tailhook, an investigation of seismic shock caused by the sex scandal involving naval aviators five years ago and its continuing impact on the Navy. The film explores the controversy over the post-Tailhook mandate to introduce women into combat roles and positions of greater authority. The report also looks at how these pressures weighed on Admiral Mike Boorda, the Navy's chief of naval operations, who committed suicide the following spring. (Web site »)
Jun. 4, 1996

The Gate of Heavenly Peace

(150 minutes) In the spring of 1989, students and workers occupied Beijing's Tiananmen Square and the world watched as China struggled with this wrenching upheaval in the name of democracy. 'The Gate of Heavenly Peace' documents the history of China's Protest Movement, providing context to the history and political attitudes which shaped the development of the movement, and reveals how moderates among student protesters and within the government were silenced by extremist factions. In its first television broadcast, the film reflects five years of meticulous research and interviews to construct the most complete and accurate account to date of the complex political process that eventually led to the Beijing Massacre on June 4. (Web site »)
Jan. 9, 1996

The Gulf War

(120 minutes) Marking the fifth anniversary of the war with Iraq, FRONTLINE investigates what really happened during the invasion of Kuwait, the months of diplomatic maneuvering, the air war and ground assault, and the post-war rebellion inside Iraq. The two-hour episodes are built around dozens of interviews with key political and military leaders in the U.S., its allies, and Iraq, as well as soldiers on both sides of the front line. Interviews include General Norman Schwarzkopf, General Colin Powell, former Secretary of State James Baker, former Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney, Britain's Margaret Thatcher, Mikhail Gorbachev, Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, Jordan's King Hussein, and Israeli Premier Yitzahk Shamir. (Web site »)
Nov. 14, 1995

Natasha and the Wolf

(90 minutes) FRONTLINE takes a riveting and intimate look at a notorious murder case--the story of Maduev, a cunning Russian gangster and killer known as 'The Wolf.' Maduev charmed and seduced all who crossed his path, including his state prosecutor, Natasha Voronstova, who smuggled him a gun to make his escape from prison. With exclusive access to the central characters, the trial, and to secret KGB tapes, this film reveals the heart of a killer's chilling story that has mesmerized Russia.
Apr. 25, 1995

The Homecoming

(60 minutes) In February 1974, Nobel prize-winning author, Alexander Solzhenitsyn was arrested, stripped of his Soviet citizenship, and expelled from his country. Nearly twenty years after exiling himself in Vermont, FRONTLINE accompanies Solzhenitsyn on his emotional return to his homeland, journeying by train across Russia into his past even as his thoughts turn toward the current troubles plaguing Russia. Followed--and often frustrated by--leagues of journalists, photographers, and camera crews, Solzhenitsyn urges the factory workers, businessmen, and ordinary villagers he meets along the way to have courage.
Feb. 14, 1995

The Godfather of Cocaine

(90 minutes) FRONTLINE travels to Colombia for an investigative biography of the rise and fall of the richest and most violent cocaine drug lord, Pablo Escobar. Before Colombian police and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency hunted him down and killed him, Escobar built an estimated $4 billion fortune through international cocaine smuggling alliances and the violent repression of his enemies.
May. 10, 1994

Romeo and Juliet in Sarajevo

(90 minutes) The international press named the couple 'Romeo and Juliet.' He was Bosko Brckic, a twenty-four-year-old Serb. She was twenty-five-year-old Admira Ismic, a Muslim. Together, they tried to escape the war in Sarajevo and marry. But late in the afternoon of May 19, 1993, on a bridge leading out of Sarajevo, they died in each other's arms, shot down by snipers in the hills overlooking the besieged city. On the one-year anniversary of their deaths, as the tragic struggle over former Yugoslavia continues, FRONTLINE pieces together the story of this couple's life and their struggle to build a future together in the midst of war and in defiance of the centuries-old Balkan conflict. [90 minutes]
May. 3, 1994

The Struggle for Russia

(120 minutes) On May Day 1993, thousands of hard-core Russian Communists, their supporters, and militant nationalists rioted in Moscow's streets. Hundreds were injured. Protesters denouncing their government's massive economic reforms vowed to continue to forcefully resist these measures. Will 1994 be another bloody May Day for Russia's troubled people? FRONTLINE presents the story of the rise and fall of Boris Yeltsin, exploring the past two years of Russia's economic chaos and social turmoil and examining why Yeltsin's 'shock therapy' dramatically foundered. The program examines how social and political forces crippled Yeltsin and how the resulting power vacuum was skillfully seized by populist, fascist leader, Vladimir Zhirinovsky. [120 minutes]
Apr. 26, 1994


(60 minutes) On the eve of the first non-racial elections in South Africa, FRONTLINE presents an analysis of Nelson Mandela's ascent to power as the first democratically-elected leader of South Africa and the remarkable political comeback of his ex-wife, Winnie Mandela.
Mar. 1, 1994

Sarajevo: The Living and the Dead

(60 minutes) As the world's eyes focus on whether the United States and NATO will finally break the two-year-long siege of Sarajevo, FRONTLINE goes behind the daily news images of this war to tell the story of the day-to-day lives of Sarajevo's beleaguered people. Yugoslavian-born filmmaker Radovan Tadic presents an intimate portrait of Sarajevans trying to live while deprived of almost everything--water, electricity, medicine, food, hope. Tadic's chronicle, filmed over a period of six months, ultimately becomes a meditation on the war, as well as a larger journey through the psychological and moral landscape of the besieged city.
Feb. 22, 1994

Red Flag Over Tibet

(60 minutes) What is the fate of Tibet? To explore that question, FRONTLINE asked Orville Schell, an author and longtime observer of China, to make the journey to the Roof of the World. Forty years of Chinese occupation have left tens of thousands of Tibetans dead and six thousand Tibetan monasteries and temples destroyed. Today, the Dalai Lama is in exile, Lhasa, the capital, is predominantly Chinese, and one of Tibet's most sacred lakes is being developed for Chinese hydroelectric power. Schell vividly chronicles the history and culture of Tibet, explores the Chinese view of Tibet, and looks at why the survival of Tibet's people and culture has become an international issue.
Feb. 1, 1994

The Diamond Empire

(90 minutes) Second only to Christmas, Valentine's Day is the holiday when diamonds are most often given as the ultimate token of love. Central to the diamond's role as a romantic symbol is the belief that diamonds are one of the rarest, most precious gifts for a loved one. But it's only a myth--diamonds are found in plentiful supply. FRONTLINE examines how the great myth about the scarcity of diamonds and their inflated value was created and maintained over the decades by the diamond cartel. This report chronicles how one family, the Oppenheimers of South Africa, gained control of the supply, marketing, and pricing of the world's diamonds.
Nov. 9, 1993

Showdown in Haiti

(60 minutes) FRONTLINE examines the escalating confrontation between the Haitian military government and the Clinton administration. Interviewing military ruler Lt. General Raoul Cedras, exiled Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide, U.S. officials, Haitian businessmen, and Aristide supporters, the program covers developments in Haiti up to the time of broadcast, setting events in historical context and examining what is at stake for President Clinton's foreign policy. 'Showdown in Haiti' includes interviews with two Aristide supporters, Antoine Izmery, a major financial backer of Aristide's political coalition, and Justice Minister Guy Malary. Both men were assassinated only days after they spoke to FRONTLINE.
May. 4, 1993

Ashes of the Cold War

(60 minutes) Three hundred thousand defense jobs have been lost since cutbacks began in 1989 and 1.2 million are expected by the end of the decade. Frontline sifts through the debris of the military-industrial complex and explores the challenges facing industries, states, and people who based their livelihood on the cold War. The program chronicles the recent history of two of the nation's largest military contractors, General Dynamics and Hughes Aircraft Company, as each tries to carve out a future in a radically changed defense environment.
Apr. 13, 1993

Iran and the Bomb

(60 minutes) With headlines focused on the United Nation's search and destroy missions inside Iraq, Frontline investigates how Iran is quietly rebuilding its national arsenal of weapons. The program uncovers a far-flung secret procurement network, including Iranian efforts to acquire biological, chemical, and, most worrisome of all, nuclear weapons.
Mar. 2, 1993

Apartheid's Last Stand

(60 minutes) Three years after Nelson Mandela's release from prison, talks between Mandela's African National Congress and the government of President FW de Klerk show signs of reaching an agreement that will end apartheid. Frontline correspondent John Matisonn investigates the forces and politics behind the ongoing violence and examines how de Klerk and Mandela have pushed through the peace process, detailing what has led both leaders to major compromises in their negotiations.
Feb. 16, 1993

The Arming of Saudi Arabia

(60 minutes) Since 1979, the US has been helping Saudi Arabia contruct a sophisticated multibillion dollar network of military bases. Frontline uncovers the hidden history of US-Saudi relations, examining the extent of the secret Saudi defense buildup, the question of high-level US collusion in fixing the price of oil, and the extent of US involvement in covert Saudi aid to Iraq in its eight-year war against Iran.
Jan. 26, 1993

Journey to the Occupied Lands

(90 minutes) As the Arab-Israeli peace talks enter their 17th round of negotiations, Frontline examines the issue which holds the key to peace: the land of the West Bank and Gaza. In a personal journey to the Israeli-occupied territories of the West Bank and Gaza, correspondent Michael Ambrosino explores the bitter and complex issues of land ownership, the scope and future of the Israeli settlements, the realities of Israeli military justice, and daily life under Israeli occupation.
Jun. 2, 1992

China After Tiananmen

(90 minutes) In June 1989, Chinese students defied their government and held pro-democracy demonstrations in Tiananmen Square. Their voices of protest were silenced with tanks and guns. Three years later, Frontline examines a country torn by the conflicting realities of liberal economic reform and continuing political repression. While China's ruling gerontocracy maintains a firm hold on political dissent, the people are embracing economic reforms and a more open society.
Apr. 7, 1992

Investigating the October Surprise

(60 minutes) At the start of an official Congressional inquiry into allegations that the 1980 Reagan-Bush presidential campaign delayed the release of 52 Americans held hostage by Iran, Frontline expands on its 1991 investigation into the so-called October Surprise. Reporter Robert Parry investigates whether or not William Casey, Reagan's campaign director, could have met with Iranians in Paris and Madrid in the summer of 1980.
Mar. 31, 1992

Saddam's Killing Fields

(60 minutes) One year after the fateful Kurdish uprising, Frontkine charts dissident Iraqi writer Kanan Makiya's secret return to Iraq to investigate rumors of an official extermination program aimed at the Kurds. Makiya travels from town to town, sifting through documents, audiotapes, and video footage kept for years by the Iraqi secret police and captured by the Kurds in the uprising. The records detail the horrifying scale of the Iraqi state's routine surveillance, torture, and murder.
Feb. 25, 1992

After Gorbachev's USSR

(60 minutes) Frontline correspondent Hedrick Smith, the award-winning host of "Inside Gorbachev's USSR," revisits the former Soviet Union to investigate how the institutions and people he filmed for his 1990 series are dealing with the challenge of change. Smith finds a nation enjoying new freedoms of speech and conscience but on the brink of economic and political disaster.
Feb. 18, 1992

Coming from Japan

(60 minutes) The Matsushita Electric Company is one of the largest corporations in the world, with a controversial history in the US stretching back more than 30 years. Shuichi Kato, a leading social critic in Japan, joins Frontline in an investigation of the conflicts that have surrounded Matsushita in the US and explores some of the larger moral and cultural issues that confront Japan as it expands rapidly abroad.
Feb. 11, 1992

The Last Communist

(60 minutes) The Cuban Revolution has turned into a struggle to feed its people. To understand what has happened to Cuba, Frontline tells the story of Cuba's controversial and charismatic leader, Fidel Castro-from the early days when his small guerilla band launched a revolution from the Sierra Maestra Mountains to the present day as Cuba's isolated, but defiant, leader.
Jan. 21, 1992

The Resurrection of Reverend Moon

(60 minutes) Frontline investigates the Reverend Sun Myung Moon, who after serving 13 months in prison in the early 1980s for conspiracy and false tax returns, has reemerged as a major media, financial, and political power in the new conservative establishment. The program explores Moon's long involvement with US political causes and politicians and the foreign sources of funding for Moon's Unification Church.
Nov. 26, 1991

The Secret Story of Terry Waite

(60 minutes) Frontline, in co-production with the BBC, examines the secret connections between Oliver North and British hostage Terry Waite, the Anglican church envoy released from captivity in Lebanon after nearly five years. Correspondent Gavin Hewitt investigates the charge North used Waite in an effort to locate the other hostages and to cover up American's covert arms-for-hostages deal with Iran.
Nov. 19, 1991

Losing the War with Japan

(90 minutes) Frontline looks at the challenge Japanese-style capitalism poses to the US market. The program examines three industries-automobile, video games, and flat panel displays used in computers. Robert Krulwich introduces the hour-long documentary and anchors a closing half-hour roundtable discussion.
Oct. 29, 1991

The War We Left Behind

(60 minutes) Frontline investigates the hidden strategies of the air war against Iraq and its devastating impact on Iraqi civilians. The program reveals how the war destroyed Iraq's power stations-leaving many Iraqis without electricity, sewage lines, or purified water, vulnerable to hunger and disease, and part of the 'slow motion disaster' in post-war Iraq.
Oct. 15, 1991

In the Shadow of Sakharov

(90 minutes) Frontline recounts the saga of Andrei Sakharov, the nuclear physicist turned human-rights advocate who became the father of the Soviet democracy movement. With unique access to Sakharov's family and friends, the film documents Sakharov's life across seven decades of Communist rule in the USSR and traces his struggle to teach his country and the world important lessons about the moral power of the human spirit.
Jun. 11, 1991

The Color of Your Skin

(60 minutes) An intimate journey into America's great racial divide, reported by David Maraniss. For 16 weeks, behind a two-way mirror in a small room at the US military's intensive race relations course, a dozen Americans-black, white, and Hispanic-confront each other with their racial anger, pain, and bewilderment. This group's dramatic struggle poses the vital question: can America overcome its racial conflicts and make equality work?
Apr. 16, 1991

The Election Held Hostage

(60 minutes) On January 20, 1981, just as Ronald Reagan became the 40th president of the United States, Iran finally released the 52 American hostages it had held for 444 days. Frontline reporter Robert Parry investigates startling new evidence about how both the Carter and Reagan camps may have tried to forge secret deals for those hostages during the 1980 presidential campaign.
Apr. 9, 1991

War and Peace in Panama

(60 minutes) Before Operation Desert Storm, there was Operation Just Cause, the 1989 invasion of Panama. Frontline examines the planning and execution of the Bush administration's first war and its impact on the problems still facing Panama's fragile democracy.
Apr. 2, 1991

Black America's War

(60 minutes) Nearly thirty percent of all US soldiers in the Gulf War were black Americans. But blacks were much more skeptical than whites about the decision to go to war. Harvard Law Professor Charles Ogletree leads a Frontline town meeting that explores the source of black attitudes and the impact of the war on the lives of black Americans.
Feb. 26, 1991

The Mind of Hussein

(60 minutes) Frontline investigates the personal and political history of Iraq's Saddam Hussein. Through interviews with Hussein's former neighbors, members of his government, military leaders, journalists, and Middle East experts, correspondent Hodding Carter reveals the fears, the passions, and the intellect of the man behind the demonic image.
Feb. 19, 1991

Guns, Tanks, and Gorbachev

(60 minutes) Correspondent Hedrick Smith, best-selling author of The New Russians, looks at the causes of recent violence in the USSR and explores the ramifications for future US-Soviet relations.
Feb. 12, 1991

The Man Who Made the Supergun

(60 minutes) Frontline examines the career of one of the world's most brilliant designers of weaponry, Gerald Bull, who designed long-range artillery used by Iraq during the Gulf War. Bull was murdered at his home in Brussels, Belgium, in March 1990-a murder believed to have been orchestrated by the Israeli secret intelligence agency, Mossad.
Feb. 5, 1991

Cuba and Cocaine

(60 minutes) Frontline investigates the long history of Castro's connection to the drug trade. Despite Cuban government denials, this report uncovers evidence that drug smuggling was an official state policy under Castro during the past decade.
Jan. 15, 1991

To the Brink of War

(60 minutes) On January 15, 1991, the United Nations resolution that allowed the use of force against Saddam Hussein took effect. Frontline correspondent Hodding Carter examined the critical decisions inside the White House, the State Department, and the Pentagon that had brought the nation to the brink of war.
Dec. 11, 1990

The Struggle for South Africa

(90 minutes) As fear and violence mount, Nelson Mandela and FW de Klerk struggle to control the tumultuous course of change in South Africa. Correspondent David Dimbleby examines the lineup of forces on each side-Afrikaners and blacks-and the divisions within each group that could disrupt negotiations for a new South Africa.
Nov. 20, 1990

Springfield Goes to War

(60 minutes) As the threat of war in the Gulf grows, a middle-sized American city grapples with the reason hundreds of thousands of US troops are being sent to Saudi Arabia. As one of the country's embarkation points for US troops and equipment, Springfield, Massachusetts has a special connection to the deployment. A student, a protester, a soldier, and a family join correspondent Bill Moyers and others in a special town meeting to discuss their hopes and fears.
Sep. 11, 1990

The Arming of Iraq: Frontline Special

(60 minutes) Frontline examines how Saddam Hussein built Iraq's massive arsenal of tanks, planes, missiles, and chemical weapons during the 1980's. Correspondent Hodding Carter invetigates the complicity of the US, European governments, and Western corporations in creating the Iraqi military machine the world is now trying to stop.
May. 22, 1990

Inside the Cartel

(60 minutes) How serious is Colombia's war on drugs? Frontline investigates the drug cartels in Medellin and Cali and demonstrates how they've become part of the country's political and economic life.
Apr. 3, 1990

Born in Africa

(90 minutes) Philly Bongoley Lutaaya was a celebrated singer.musician from Uganda who died of AIDS in December 1989. But he died a national hero because he gave his nation new hope in battling the devastation of the disease. This Frontline.AIDS Quarterly special, narrated by Peter Jennings, chronicles Philly Lutaaya's remarkable last year of life as he travelled across Uganda in a crusade to help stop the spread of AIDS, even as the disease ravaged his body.
Mar. 27, 1990

Poland - The Morning After

(60 minutes) In the summer of 1989, Poland astonished the world by starting the revolution which has swept Eastern Europe. Solidarity, the once-banned independent trade union, took power in a coalition government ending 45 years of Communist repression. In this report, Frontline examines a society attempting something which has never been done-changing overnight from Communism to capitalism.
Feb. 27, 1990

The Faces of Arafat

(60 minutes) In the wake of PLO chairman Yasir Arafat's historic declaration that he has rejected terrorism and now recognizes Israel's right to exist, correspondent Marie Colvin profiles the Palestinian leader, follows his peace initiatives, and examines his commitment to fulfill his new promises.
Feb. 6, 1990


(60 minutes) Frontline goes behind the scenes at the Soviet Union's first national beauty pageant with an intimate, bitterweet examination of the status and struggles of women in the USSR.
Jan. 30, 1990

The Noriega Connection

(60 minutes) In the wake of the US invasion of Panama, Frontline tracks the rise and fall of General Manuel Noriega and investigates the confusion and duplicity in the US government's long relationship with the fallen dictator.
Jan. 23, 1990

The Bombing of Pan Am 103

(60 minutes) Frontline profiles the efforts of the surviving families of the 270 people killed in the terrorist bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, in December 1988, to seek justice for their loved ones. The families' crusade focuses attention on issues of airline and airport security, on the lack of coordination between international police and intelligence services, and on whether the US government has the will and means to respond effectively against terrorists and the countries that support them.
Jun. 13, 1989

Death of a Terrorist

(60 minutes) Mairead Farrell was one of three Irish Republican Army terrorists gunned down by British security forces on Gibraltar in March 1988. Frontline examines her 17 year career as an IRA militant and the questions her life and death raise about the British government's ability to apply the rule of law to political terrorism.
May. 23, 1989

Remember My Lai

(60 minutes) In 1968, American soldiers massacred over 500 adults and children in a Vietnamese hamlet called My Lai. Frontline explores the legacy of that savage day on the men who were there and the Vietnamese who survived.
May. 16, 1989

Israel: The Covert Connection

(60 minutes) The Iran-contra scandal revealed a glimpse of the US government's secret relationship with Israel. This program investigates America's strategic alliance with Israel since the 1950's and our covert and overt ties to Isaraeli arms deals and intelligence operations.
Jan. 24, 1989

The Spy Who Broke the Code

(60 minutes) Was John Walker the spy of the century? Frontline investigates the Walker spy ring and how it sold secrets about American military codes to the Soviets. The program assesses the damage to US national security and includes exclusive interviews with Walker, the convicted ring leader, and his principal partner, Jerry Whitworth.
Jun. 14, 1988

Our Forgotten War

(60 minutes) In Central America, while US attention has been dominated by the contra war in Nicaragua, the battle for El Salvador continues. The US government has dumped nearly $3 billion in aid into El Salvador (more than ten times the amount spent on the contras), but there are new signs that the American policy is in trouble. With exclusive footage shot behind guerilla lines, Frontline takes a fresh look at the war in El Salvador.
May. 31, 1988

Trouble in Paradise

(60 minutes) Frontline examines the US government's attempts to forge a military pact with the Pacific Island nation of Palau (population 15,000)-a campaign that has led to economic dependence, political strife, corruption, and violence in that tiny country.
May. 24, 1988

The Defense of Europe

(60 minutes) Frontline and Time magazine join forces to examine the new realitites for the NATO alliance following the American-Soviet nuclear arms treaty. How good are the Warsaw Pact forces? Can Europe defend itself without nuclear missiles? Will America begin to pull out its troops?
May. 17, 1988

Guns, Drugs, and the CIA

(60 minutes) A Frontline investigation examines the CIA's long history of involvement with drug smugglers in trouble spots around the world and how the agency has defended its alliances with drug dealers under the cloak of 'national security.'
Apr. 26, 1988

American Game, Japanese Rules

(60 minutes) Can America succeed in Japan? Frontline paints an intimate portrait of Americans living and working in Japan-baseball players, businessmen, and an American bride-all confronting a society that looks Western, but operates by a very different set of rules.
Apr. 19, 1988

Murder on the Rio San Juan

(60 minutes) Frontline investigates the unsolved 1984 terrorist bombing at a press conference held by contra leader Eden Pastora. Eight people, including an American reporter, died that night on the border between Nicaragua and Costa Rica. This report dissects the motives of possible conspirators and follows the trail of the man suspected of planting the bomb.
Apr. 5, 1988

Poison and the Pentagon

(60 minutes) The military is America's largest producer of toxic waste. Frontline reporter Joe Rosenbloom investigates the Pentagon's poor record of cleaning up its pollution that contaminates the ground water in communities across the country.
Mar. 29, 1988

Back in the USSR

(60 minutes) In 1968, American journalist Jerry Schecter, accompanied by his wife and five young children, moved to Moscow on assignment for Time magazine. In 1987, Frontline returned with the Schecter family to the Soviet Union as they renewed old friendships and explored Russia under glasnost.
Feb. 2, 1988

Operation Urgent Fury

(60 minutes) Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter Seymour Hersh investigates one of Ronald Reagan's greatest truimphs-the rescue of American students during the 1983 invasion of Grenada. Hersh's reporting reveals an inept US military operation and questions whether the students needed rescuing at all.
Dec. 16, 1987

Apartheid Part 5: 1987

(60 minutes) Part 5 looks at an unprecedented meeting in the struggle for South Africa's future. Two years before the release of Nelson Mandela, dissident white Afrikaners met with black leaders from the outlawed African National Congress in Dakar, Senagal, to discuss strategies for change in South Africa, presaging the reforms that would come later.
Dec. 15, 1987

Apartheid Part 4: 1978-1986

(60 minutes) When PW Botha became prime minister of South Africa two years after the Soweto uprising in 1976, he realized that apartheid must 'adapt or die.' Part 4 explores the reforms undertaken by Botha to maintain white supremacy, changes that have deeply divided Afrikaners and have provoked explosive reactions from many blacks.
Dec. 15, 1987

Apartheid Part 3: 1963-1977

(60 minutes) 'Independent homelands' for blacks was the centerpiece of Prime Minister Hendrick Verwoerd's vision of apartheid. Part 3 focuses on how the white government found African leaders to collaborate with them in a plan to make foreigners of black South African citizens by deporting them to independent homelands in rural areas of the country. The program looks at the increased resistance to the homeland policy as seen through the first nationwide attack by young black South Africans in the Soweto ghetto in 1976.
Dec. 14, 1987

Apartheid Part 1: 1652-1948

(60 minutes) Many white South Africans claim that the entire country is theirs by right. No black man, they say, occupied South Africa before the first tiny Dutch settlement in 1652. Part 1 refutes this claim and traces the country's colonial history, the emergence early in the 20th century of the African National Congress, the rise to power of Afrikaner nationalists, and the formal policy of apartheid.
Dec. 14, 1987

Apartheid Part 2: 1948-1963

(60 minutes) Part 2 details the new policy which included classifying all South Africans by race, removing blacks from cities where many had lived for generations, and establishing separate and unequal schooling for blacks. Frontline focuses on the increasing black resistance in the 1950s and the rise of resistance leader Nelson Mandela.
Jun. 2, 1987

Israel: The Price of Victory

(60 minutes) The Six Day War was a decisive victory for Israel. But many Israelis feel that something has gone wrong. On the war's twentieth anniversary, Frontline finds a nation struggling with its image and its role as a democracy and reveals what has happened to the dream.
May. 26, 1987

In Search of the Marcos Millions

(60 minutes) The day Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos fled the Philippines in 1986, they left with $8.9 million in jewelry, cash, and bonds. But the Philippine government claims they took much more, plundering the wealth of the nation, stashing it in fake companies and secret bank accounts. Frontline tracked hundreds of millions of dollars of the Marcos money and asked whether the Philippine government will ever get it back.
Apr. 21, 1987

War on Nicaragua

(60 minutes) As the Iran-contra scandal was still unfolding, Frontline correspondent William Greider revealed how the US began supporting the contras in Nicaragua and why our involvement there continues. The program is a meticulous reconstruction of US policy toward Nicaragua, and an investigation into how US foreign policy is made.
Feb. 24, 1987

The Nazi Connection

(60 minutes) German scientists were responsible for putting the first American on the moon. Now, 15 years later, government investigators are asking whether some of them were also responsible for Nazi war crimes. Frontline examines their war records and the role of American officials who decided to bring them to the United States.
Sep. 9, 1986

Comrades XII: Leningrad Movie

(60 minutes) Soviet film directors have one advantage over Westerners: the state takes care of the budget. But in return, the state expects firm control over all productions. Dinara Asanova, one of the few female directors of Soviet features, knows how to bend the rules-departing from approved scripts and changing characters and locations, with controversial results.
Sep. 2, 1986

Comrades XI: October Harvest

(60 minutes) The Kulinich family lives and works on a collective farm in southern Russia. Frontline follows the Kulinichs through their daily lives during harvest time and takes a close look at the workings of the collective farm system to find that they, like many other Russian peasants, have discovered their own version of the Communist way of life-Leninism with loopholes.
Aug. 26, 1986

Comrades IX: Baltic Chic

(60 minutes) Fashion-conscious Estonians living on the Gulf of Finland are inspired by the Western styles of Dallas and Dynasty which are picked up from Finnish TV in Helsinki, fifty miles away. Frontline profiles Krista Kajandu, the chief designer of a fashion house in the town of Tallin the 'Paris of the North,' who tries to raise the design standards of the Soviet fashion industry.
Aug. 26, 1986

Comrades X: Soldier Boy

(60 minutes) For the first time on Western television, Frontline details a recruit's life inside a Soviet Army barracks. Frontline cameras follow Valera Krylov, 18, through the exertion and boredom of basic training in the military and focuses on his parents, who worry that in the next two years he may be fighting in Afghanistan.
Aug. 19, 1986

Comrades VIII: Doctor in Moscow

(60 minutes) Svyatoslav Nilolaevich Fyodorov is an outspoken and provocative eye surgeon whose surgical technique for correcting nearsightedness has made him famous. He lives like a superstar with a chauffeur, a sumptuous apartment in Moscow, and a house in the country. Frontline follows Fyodorov through his day and reveals what life is really like for privileged Soviet Citizens.
Aug. 12, 1986

Comrades VII: Steel Mill Soccer

(60 minutes) Frontline profiles the lives of players on a factory soccer team in the southern Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan as they fight for the town championship.
Aug. 5, 1986

Comrades VI: Pacific Outpost

(60 minutes) Frontline gained unique access in filming the inner workings of the local government system in Nakhodka, a town six thousand miles and seven time zones from Moscow. Here, Frontline profiles the workaholic lifestyle of Tatyana Naumova, a communist zealot and town official in Nakhodka, and the tensions it creates with her husband, who cares for their two daughters.
Jul. 29, 1986

Comrades V: Master of Samarkand

(60 minutes) Abdugaffar Khakkulov is a master craftsman of Uzbek heritage who for 35 years has been restoring the great Islamic mosques in Samarkand. Frontline examines daily life in a Muslim community and explores the uneasy relationship between Islamic faith and Soviet power.
Jul. 22, 1986

Comrades IV: The Trial of Tamara Russo

(60 minutes) Frontline examines the differences in Soviet and Western justice systems as it contrasts the lives of Tamara Russo, a 50-year-old hospital orderly on trial for theft in Soviet Moldavia, and Lyubov Bubulic, the female judge presiding over Russo's case.
Jul. 15, 1986

Comrades III: All that Jazz

(60 minutes) Sergei Kuryokhin is a popular Russian jazz and rock musician who is disapproved of by the state because his music is difficult to control. Made without the permission of Soviet authorities on a home video camera, Frontline takes a look at the Soviet music subculture and this one talented musician.
Jul. 8, 1986

Comrades II: Hunter and Son

(60 minutes) For four months every year, Mikhail Kuzakov and his son, Yuri, leave the comforts of home for the Siberian wilderness, where they hunt on horseback for sable and other valuable fur animals. Frontline examines life in the taiga and follows the hunt of father and son.
Jul. 1, 1986

Comrades I: The Education of Rita

(60 minutes) Rita Tikhonova, 21, is a model Russian citizen. The lifestyle and ambitions of an outstanding Young Communist League member in Moscow are depicted as she completes her education at a prestigious school and begins her first teaching job.
Jun. 10, 1986

Will There Always Be an England?

(60 minutes) England is a country divided. One in five workers in northern England is unemployed, while in the south of the country, power, privilege prevail. Ofra Bikel explores Britain's social structure, cultural values, and attitudes toward enterprise and work.
Jun. 3, 1986

Holy War, Holy Terror

(60 minutes) Frontline correspondent John Laurence examines the background of the Islamic Revolution, the roots of radical Shiism and reveals why Iran's war with Iraq is an important step in spreading their brand of Islam throughout the world.
May. 20, 1986

The Bloods of 'Nam

(60 minutes) A high percentage of men on the frontlines in Vietnam were young, poor, undereducated, and black. By most accounts, they had the highest casualties. But these young men say they were fighting two wars-against the enemy and against discrimination. Correspondent Wallace Terry, the author of 'Bloods,' the national bestseller on which this film is based, talks with black veterans who fought discrimination in Vietnam and who later confronted disillusionment when they came home.
Apr. 22, 1986

Visions of Star Wars

(120 minutes) Frontline and Nova combine resources for the first time to explore the Strategic Defense Initiative. The program contains the most comprehensive information on Star Wars ever produced. Correspondent Bill Kurtis interviews Russian and American scientists, arms-control experts, and politicians to reveal the scientific and political implications of what could become the world's most sophisticated military technology.
Apr. 1, 1986

Standoff in Mexico

(60 minutes) Political violence is breaking out in northern Mexico. Frontline documents the growing unrest in Mexico caused by fixed elections, corruption, violence, and the widening gap between Mexico City and the more conservative border states.
Mar. 18, 1986

Who's Running this War?

(60 minutes) Eight months before the Iran-contra scandal broke, Frontline investigated the contras, probed the legality of private aid, and asked questions about the role of the White House and a mysterious Marine colonel named Oliver North.
Feb. 11, 1986

Russia-Love it or Leave it

(60 minutes) A unique look at the Soviet Union through the eyes of Americans as they attempt to escape the confines of a carefully managed Russian tour. They elude their government guides and search for their fellow man on the streets of the Soviet Union.
Jan. 21, 1986

Hostage in Iran

(90 minutes) While the whole world watched, 52 Americans were held hostage in Iran by Islamic revolutionaries for 444 days. On the fifth anniversary of their release, using never-before-seen footage from inside the American embassy compound in Tehran, the hostages tell the story of their long ordeal.
Apr. 30, 1985

The American Way of War

(60 minutes) Frontline examines the complex relationship between the US Army, its fighting doctrine, the American people, and the government in an effort to understand the army's role in fighting modern wars.
Apr. 12, 1985

Crisis in Central America 4: Battle for El Sal.

(60 minutes) Many Americans had never heard of El Salvador until a few years ago. It is now the focus of American policy in Central America. Part 4 traces the evolution of El Salvador's civil war and the US policy toward El Salvador.
Apr. 11, 1985

Crisis in Central America 3: Revol. in Nicrgua.

(60 minutes) In 1979, the Sandinistas led a revolution that overthrew the Somoza dynasty which had ruled Nicaragua for almost 50 years. It was a revolution the US first tried to prevent, then tried to court, and later tried to undermine. Part 3 traces the evolution of US involvement in Nicaragua and the struggle for control of the revolution.
Apr. 10, 1985

Crisis in Central America 2: Castro's Challenge

(60 minutes) The Cuban revolution of the 1950's was the first successful challenge to US preeminence in the Western hemisphere. Part 2 looks at the roots of the revolution, Fidel Castro's rise to power, the establishment of the first Communist state in the Americas, the support for his revolution abroad, and Cuba's troubled history with the United States.
Apr. 9, 1985

Crisis in Central American Pt.1: Yankee Years

(60 minutes) From the Spanish-American War in 1898 until the 1950's, US preeminence in Central America and the Caribbean was never successfully challenged. Part 1 looks at these turbulent years that set the stage for today's crises-from the glory days of building the Panama Canal, through the early US Marine occupation of Nicaragua, to the Cold War crisis in Guatemala in 1954, which resulted in the CIA's first 'covert' war in the region.
Mar. 5, 1985

Buying the Bomb

(60 minutes) Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative reporter Seymour Hersh presents his first television investigation for Frontline. After six months of work, Hersh uncovers the story of a Pakistani businessman who tried to ship electrical devices which can be used as nuclear bomb triggers out of the US to Pakistan.
Feb. 26, 1985

Retreat from Beirut

(60 minutes) They went to keep the peace. But 241 died-caught in a military and political cross fire. One year after the pullout of American Marines from Lebanon, Frontline correspondent William Greider examines the decision and asks: Where should Americans die, and what should they die for?
Jan. 15, 1985

Vietnam Under Communism

(60 minutes) Frontline takes a rare look inside the new Vietnam, 10 years after the fall of Saigon and the US pullout. While the Vietnamese celebrate their victory, the countryside remains scarred and war-torn. Frontline examines the legacies of the longest and most unpopular war in American history on the country where it was fought.
Dec. 11, 1984

Red Star Over Khyber

(60 minutes) In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. On the fifth anniversary of the invasion, Frontline correspondent Richard Reeves reports from Afghanistan and Pakistan, examining the stalemate in the Persian Gulf and the pressure placed on Pakistan to accept over one million Afghan refugees.
Nov. 27, 1984

Cry, Ethiopia, Cry

(60 minutes) In one of the first comprehensive reports broadcast in the U.S., Frontline presents the searing reality of the famine in Ethiopia. In desert camps described as 'the closest thing to hell on earth,' nearly 100 children, old people, and the infirm were dying every day. They were dying while the US and the Soviet Union argued over how to feed them and what to do about Ethiopia.
Nov. 13, 1984

The Arab and the Israeli

(60 minutes) Two men, a Palestinian and an Israeli, born thirty miles apart, journey to America. In synagogues and universities, on television talk shows and interviews, they try to project a message: that a solution for the West Bank is possible.
May. 14, 1984

Return of the Great White Fleet

(60 minutes) Frontline profiles Navy Secretary John Lehman and the growing debate inside the Navy establishment to build a multibillion dollar fleet which critics say may not be able to fight the kind of wars the nation would be most likely to fight.
Apr. 16, 1984

Captive in El Salvador

(60 minutes) Much of the debate over the role of the U.S. in Central America focuses on this tiny nation about which filmaker Ofra Bikel says 'we know so much, but we know so little.' In this report, Bikel takes us into the heart of El Slavador to examine the politics and the people the U.S. government supports there.
Feb. 6, 1984

The Old Man and the Gun

(60 minutes) Frontline looks at the conflict in Northern Ireland through the eyes of Irish Americans who support the IRA and its strategy of violence. Frontline cameras follow Michael Flannery through his day as Grand Marshal of New York City's St. Patrick's Day Parade and then back to Ireland to the spot where Flannery participated in an ambush on British troops some 50 years ago.
Jul. 18, 1983

Klaus Barbie: The American Connection

(60 minutes) Klaus Barbie, a hated Nazi war criminal, was returned to France in 1983 to face justice. But some Frenchmen were worried that he would reveal embarrassing evidence about French collaboration, and some Americans feared that he would talk about his postwar work for U.S. intelligence agencies.
Jun. 27, 1983

Crossfire in El Salvador

(60 minutes) In 1983, El Salvador was a nation where murder and torture were an everyday occurrence, a place where loved ones disappear and truth remains elusive. Frontline interviews government soldiers, rebels, and noncombatants to find out why the killing continues.
Jun. 13, 1983

The Russians Are Here

(60 minutes) During the previous decade, 100,000 Russians came to America to live. Here they found a more difficult freedom than Americans might imagine. Frontline's portrait of this emigre community reveals the conflicting values which underpin American and Soviet societies.
May. 30, 1983

Vietnam Memorial

(60 minutes) Frontline tells the story of five days in the fall of 1982 when more than 150,000 people gathered in Washington D.C. for the dedication of the Vietnam Memorial. Parents, friends, and survivors came to the emotion-filled event reflecting the pain and conflict many still feel about that war.
May. 16, 1983

Israel: Between the River and the Sea

(60 minutes) For eight years, Rafik Halabi covered the West Bank and Gaza strip-the only Arab reporter working in the Hebrew section of Israeli Television. This is Rafik's story-a story in which his identity and loyalty became a national controversy.
May. 9, 1983

Looking for Mao

(60 minutes) Only seven years after Mao's death, it is clear that China is undergoing another revolution. This is a revolution of political and social relaxation. Frontline explores what has been retained and what has been rejected from the days of the Cultural Revolution.
Apr. 25, 1983

Crisis in Zimbabwe

(60 minutes) Rhodesia, a symbol of white racism, has become Zimbabwe and white minority rule has given way to black majority rule. However, the end of the guerilla war may not mean an end to fighting. Correspondent Charlie Cobb finds a rift between the nation's two black leaders that threatens to split the country along tribal lines.
Apr. 11, 1983

Space: The Race for High Ground

(60 minutes) Before President Reagan introduced Star Wars, Frontline examined how in the previous 25 years the US and the Soviet Union had gone from designing satellites to designing weapons to blast them out of the sky. The superpowers were converting space from an arena for communications, to a concept of space as 'high ground,' the battle area to control.
Mar. 21, 1983

A Journey to Russia

(60 minutes) Before Gorbachev and glasnost, three young Americans journey to the Soviet Union on a whirlwind two-week, six-city debating tour. They encounter young, articulate Russians whose world view is completely contradictory to their own.
Feb. 21, 1983

Pentagon, Inc.

(60 minutes) Frontline investigates the power of the Pentagon as a business and economic force in the domestic economy. Politicians find themselves chasing Pentagon dollars for the jobs those dollars create in their districts; scientists and universities find themselves dependent on the military if they want to do research in many high-tech areas.
Feb. 14, 1983

God's Banker

(60 minutes) In 1982,a man was discovered hanging from a bridge over the Thames River in London. He was Roberto Calvi, head of Italy's largest bank and chief advisor to the Vatican's bank. Reporter Jeremy Paxman investigates Calvi's links with the Vatican and with P-2, a secret Italian society, and questions whether his death was really a suicide.
Feb. 7, 1983

A Chinese Affair

(60 minutes) For thirty-four years, those who fled to Taiwan in the wake of the Communist victory have had only their memories and fantasies of mainland China. Now they want to know much more, and a political struggle is underway to determine how Taiwan will relate to the mainland.



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