[an error occurred while processing this directive] [an error occurred while processing this directive]
Rollover text informationAmerican Experience Logo
Scottsboro: An American Tragedy

spacer above content
Further Reading

Web Sites | Books | Articles

Famous American Trials
This thorough Scottsboro site, built by Prof. Douglas O. Linder of the University of Missouri - Kansas City Law School, provides a wealth of primary documents -- trial transcripts, photographs, newspaper accounts -- as well as excellent summary essays.

The web site of the Afro-American Newspaper Company of Baltimore has a summary of the case with links to contemporary news stories from the paper, as well as scans of the original telegrams from reporters to the publisher during the second trial in Decatur (March 1933).

The Greatest Trials of All Time
Court TV's Scottsboro web site includes interviews with Dan T. Carter, and Ed Horton, son of Judge James E. Horton.

Legal Information Institute
Cornell Law School maintains a site that contains Supreme Court opinions on Scottsboro, as well as full texts of the United States and Alabama constitutions.

Web Sites | Books | Articles

Blaustein, Albert P. and Robert L. Zangrando. Civil Rights and the American Negro: A Documentary History. New York: Washington Square Press, 1968.

Bowers, Claude G. The Tragic Era: The Revolution After Lincoln. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1929.

Carter, Dan T. Scottboro: A Tragedy of the American South. Revised edition. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979. The 1969 publication of this book, based on the author's PhD thesis, ended with the statement that both Victoria Price and Ruby Bates were deceased. This turned out not to be the case, and the two women sued NBC for libel, slander and invasion of privacy after the airing of "Judge Horton and the Scottsboro Boys," a fictionalized account of the case. A final chapter in the revised edition of this book finds the author himself on the witness stand for the libel case that was eventually dismissed by the court.

Chalmers, Allan Knight. They Shall Be Free. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1951.

Commission on Interracial Cooperation. The Commission on Interracial Cooperation Papers, 1919-1944 and the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching Papers, 1930-1942. A Guide to the Microfilm Editions. Edited by Mitchell F. Ducey. Ann Arbor, 1984.

Crenshaw, Files and Kenneth A. Miller. Scottsboro: The Firebrand of Communism. Montgomery: Brown Printing Company, 1936. Described by Carter as depicting "the case as a communist plot to foment revolution in Alabama [and] one of the few published books that has concluded that Victoria Price and Ruby Bates were raped as they claimed."

Draper, Theodore. American Communism and Soviet Russia: The Formative Period. New York: Viking Press, 1960.

Du Bois, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction in America. 1935. Reprint. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Goodman, James. Stories of Scottsboro. New York: Vintage Books, 1994. Told from different points of view in each chapter, this history conveys the conflicting perceptions of a complex situation.

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, et al. Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

Howe, Irving, and Lewis Coser. The American Communist Party: A Critical History, 1919-1957. Boston: Beacon Press, 1957.

Hudson, Hosea. Black Worker in the Deep South: A Personal Record. New York: International Publishers, 1972.

Hughes, Langston. I Wonder As I Wander: An Autobiographical Journey. New York: Rinehart, 1956.

----. Scottsboro Limited: Four Poems and a Play in Verse. Illustrated by Prentiss Taylor. New York: Golden Stair Press, 1932.

Kelley, Robin D. G. Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Leibowitz, Robert. The Defender: The Life and Career of Samuel S. Leibowitz, 1893-1933. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981.

Lynn, Conrad. There Is a Fountain: The Autobiography of a Civil Rights Lawyer. Westport, CT: L. Hill, 1979.

Naison, Mark. Communists in Harlem During the Depression. New York: Grove Press, 1984.

Norris, Clarence and Sybil D. Washington. The Last of the Scottsboro Boys. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1979.

Patterson, Haywood and Earl Conrad. Scottsboro Boy. New York: Doubleday, 1950. This account was written after Patterson escaped Kilby Prison in Alabama. When he was found in Detroit that same year, the Michigan Governor refused to extradite him to Alabama.

Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching. Lynchings and What They Mean. Atlanta: The Commission, 1931.

Web Sites | Books | Articles

Basso, Hamilton. "Five Days in Decatur." The New Republic 7 (December 20, 1933): 161-164.

Beals, Carleton. "Scottsboro Interview." The Nation 142 (February 12, 1936): 178-179.

----. "The Scottsboro Puppet Show." The Nation 142 (February 5, 1936): 149-150.

Beecher, John. "The Share Croppers' Union in Alabama." Social Forces 13 (October 1934): 125-132.

Hammond, John Henry. "Due Process of Law in Alabama." The Nation 137 (December 20, 1933): 701-702.

----. "The South Speaks." The Nation 136 (April 26, 1933): 465-466.

----. "The Trial of Haywood Patterson." The New Republic 86 (February 12, 1936): 13-14.

Haywood, Jarry. "The Scottsboro Decision." Communist 11 (December 1932): 1065-1075.

Hughes, Langston. "Southern Gentlemen, White Prostitutes, Mill-Owners, and Negroes." Contempo 1 (December 1931): 1.

Murray, Hugh T. Jr. "Aspects of the Scottsboro Campaign." Science and Society 35 (Summer 1971): 177-192.

----. "Changing America and the Changing Image of Scottsboro." Phylon 38 (1977): 82-92.

----. "The NAACP Versus the Communist Party: The Scottsboro Rape Cases, 1931-1932." In Bernard Sternsher, ed., The Negro in Depression and War: Prelude to a Revolution, 1930-1945. Chicago, 1969.

Owsley, Frank L. "Scottsboro, the Third Crusade: The Sequel to Abolition and Reconstruction." American Review 1 (June 1933): 257-285.

Ransdell, Hollace. "Report on the Scottsboro, Alabama Case." New York: American Civil Liberties Union, 1931.

Shapiro, Morris. "Behind the Scenes at Scottsboro." The Nation 145 (August 14, 1937): 170-171.

Vorse, Mary Heaton. "How Scottsboro Happened." The New Republic 74 (May 10, 1933): 356-58.

Site Navigation

The Film & More: Film Description | Transcript | Primary Sources | Further Reading

Scottsboro: An American Tragedy Home | The Film & More | Special Features | Timeline | Maps | People & Events | Teacher's Guide

American Experience | Feedback | Search & Site Map | Shop | Subscribe | Web Credits

© New content 1999-2000 PBS Online / WGBH

Exclusive Corporate Funding is provided by: